Molecular Biology & Genetics Laboratory

Genotyping


Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) are tracks of repetitive sequence elements that are one to six bp in length and are scattered throughout the genome. They occur both in intergenic and intragenic regions of the genome. At MBG Lab, we amplify and analyze these informative polymorphic loci to answer questions related to parentage, individual identification and relatedness in different animal species. Our portfolio includes but is not limited to STR profiling in species like camel, horse, falcon, chicken, houbara, lion, tigers, cats, dolphins, penguins etc. If your species of interest is not listed contact us.
MBG Lab has been actively participating in the Inter-laboratory tests carried out by International Society of Animal Genetics (ISAG) for horses, dromedary camels, lama and alpaca, canine comparison test.

ISAG Rank 1
Assay Code See Below
Description DNA is extracted from submitted samples and microsatellite markers are amplified and analysed to determine the genotype of an individual. Each individual has a unique genotype that stays the same throughout the life of an individual. A DNA profile is generated and archived for future reference. This profile can be used in the future for parentage verification and identity verification, relatedness studies or for DNA banking. Microsatellite markers are used to genotype samples from Chicken, Houbara, Falcon, vulture, Dolphin, Shark, Lion, Tiger, Dog, Cat, Cheetah, Hyena, Penguin ...etc.

Species Tested
  • ATC-088 : Camelid
  • ATE-086 : Equine
  • ATO-090 : Others species
    Including but not limited to :
    Bovine, Cat, Chicken,
    Cheetah, Canine, Caprine,
    Dolphin, Falcon, Houbara,
    Hyena, Lion, Penguin,
    Shark, Sheep, Tiger, Vulture.

Method PCR and fragment analysis.
Sample Type
EDTA blood, Hair.
For other type of samples please contact MBG Lab.
Transport Condition EDTA blood should be transported at 4°C and hair sample at room temperature.
Turn Around Time (TAT) Within 10 working days for normal processing.

Links

ISAG Rank 1
Assay Code See Below
Description The genotype of the foal is compared with the genotype of suspected Sire or Dam using computer software. The results are issued in the form of a microsatellite verification certificate. The more loci that are amplified, the higher the statistical power of discrimination.
Parentage is based on the exclusion principle. A DNA profile of the animal-based on a number of markers is generated which is compared to the DNA profile of the parents. If the genotype matches with that of the parents and no exclusion can be made, then the parentage is qualified. In the case of a single marker mismatch, several other microsatellites (additional markers) are analysed to verify the parentage for the submitted animal. If still there is no more exclusion, the parentage is qualified with one exclusion which could be due to mutation. [This is rare as microsatellite mutation rates are stable enough for pedigree analysis. Mutation rates are in the order of one mutation in 1,000-1,000,000 generations per given loci]. However, if more markers are excluded the parentage is disqualified.
Parentage exclusions are 100% accurate, whereas parentage qualifications are not. The accuracy of most animal parentage testing is more than 99% if both parents are provided. However, this accuracy drops down to 95% when only one parent is provided for analysis. The accuracy still lowers down if the potential parent(s) are part of a large family of closely related inbred animals. Therefore, to prevent erroneous parentage assignments, it is important to have information for both parents.

Species Tested
  • ATC-053 : Camelid
  • ATE-056 : Equine
  • ATO-084 : Others species
    Including but not limited to :
    Bovine, Cat, Chicken,
    Cheetah, Canine, Caprine,
    Dolphin, Falcon, Houbara,
    Hyena, Lion, Penguin,
    Shark, Sheep, Tiger, Vulture.

Method PCR and fragment analysis.
Sample Type
EDTA blood, Hair.
For other type of samples please contact MBG Lab.
Transport Condition EDTA blood should be transported at 4°C and hair sample at room temperature.
Turn Around Time (TAT) Within 10 working days for normal processing.

Links

ISAG Rank 1
Assay Code See Below
Description Each individual has a unique genotype that stays the same throughout the life of an individual. A DNA profile using STR markers is generated and can be used for identity verification. Samples can be submitted to be compared to previously generated DNA profiles. Many commercially important animals are genotyped at birth and this profile accompanies them during export/ import. Identity verification can be used to trace a sample to the individual and is important in racing industry, reproductive studies and for meat adulteration tests.

Species Tested
  • ATC-089 : Camelid
  • ATE-087 : Equine
  • ATO-063 : Others species
    Including but not limited to :
    Bovine, Cat, Chicken,
    Cheetah, Canine, Caprine,
    Dolphin, Falcon, Houbara,
    Hyena, Lion, Penguin,
    Shark, Sheep, Tiger, Vulture.

Method PCR and fragment analysis.
Sample Type
EDTA blood, Hair.
For other type of samples please contact MBG Lab.
Transport Condition EDTA blood should be transported at 4°C and hair sample at room temperature.
Turn Around Time (TAT) Within 10 working days for normal processing.

Links

Validated
Assay Code AOT-097
Description The knowledge about relatedness is important for our understanding of breeding management and conservation of animals and can be studied using DNA markers. Here at MBG, we do relatedness analysis using STR markers. Relatedness can be described by the probabilities that any two individuals share either zero, one or two alleles that are identical-by-descent. More probabilities are needed if the individuals are inbred, meaning that their parents were related. Relatedness is best estimated by using highly polymorphic STR markers, to minimize the ambiguity between identity-by-state(IBS) and identity-by-descent(IBD).

Species Tested
  • Canine
  • Cat
  • Cheetah
  • Houbara
  • Hyena
  • Lion
  • Tiger

Transport Condition EDTA blood should be transported at 4°C and hair sample at room temperature.
Turn Around Time (TAT) Within 10 working days for normal processing.

Links




Molecular Biology & Genetics Laboratory

Genotyping


Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) are tracks of repetitive sequence elements that are one to six bp in length and are scattered throughout the genome. They occur both in intergenic and intragenic regions of the genome. At MBG Lab, we amplify and analyze these informative polymorphic loci to answer questions related to parentage, individual identification and relatedness in different animal species. Our portfolio includes but is not limited to STR profiling in species like camel, horse, falcon, chicken, houbara, lion, tigers, cats, dolphins, penguins etc. If your species of interest is not listed contact us.
MBG Lab has been actively participating in the Inter-laboratory tests carried out by International Society of Animal Genetics (ISAG) for horses, dromedary camels, lama and alpaca, canine comparison test.

ISAG Rank 1
Assay Code See Below
Description DNA is extracted from submitted samples and microsatellite markers are amplified and analysed to determine the genotype of an individual. Each individual has a unique genotype that stays the same throughout the life of an individual. A DNA profile is generated and archived for future reference. This profile can be used in the future for parentage verification and identity verification, relatedness studies or for DNA banking. Microsatellite markers are used to genotype samples from Chicken, Houbara, Falcon, vulture, Dolphin, Shark, Lion, Tiger, Dog, Cat, Cheetah, Hyena, Penguin ...etc.

Species Tested
  • ATC-088 : Camelid
  • ATE-086 : Equine
  • ATO-090 : Others species
    Including but not limited to :
    Bovine, Cat, Chicken,
    Cheetah, Canine, Caprine,
    Dolphin, Falcon, Houbara,
    Hyena, Lion, Penguin,
    Shark, Sheep, Tiger, Vulture.

Method PCR and fragment analysis.
Sample Type
EDTA blood, Hair.
For other type of samples please contact MBG Lab.
Transport Condition EDTA blood should be transported at 4°C and hair sample at room temperature.
Turn Around Time (TAT) Within 10 working days for normal processing.

Links

ISAG Rank 1
Assay Code See Below
Description The genotype of the foal is compared with the genotype of suspected Sire or Dam using computer software. The results are issued in the form of a microsatellite verification certificate. The more loci that are amplified, the higher the statistical power of discrimination.
Parentage is based on the exclusion principle. A DNA profile of the animal-based on a number of markers is generated which is compared to the DNA profile of the parents. If the genotype matches with that of the parents and no exclusion can be made, then the parentage is qualified. In the case of a single marker mismatch, several other microsatellites (additional markers) are analysed to verify the parentage for the submitted animal. If still there is no more exclusion, the parentage is qualified with one exclusion which could be due to mutation. [This is rare as microsatellite mutation rates are stable enough for pedigree analysis. Mutation rates are in the order of one mutation in 1,000-1,000,000 generations per given loci]. However, if more markers are excluded the parentage is disqualified.
Parentage exclusions are 100% accurate, whereas parentage qualifications are not. The accuracy of most animal parentage testing is more than 99% if both parents are provided. However, this accuracy drops down to 95% when only one parent is provided for analysis. The accuracy still lowers down if the potential parent(s) are part of a large family of closely related inbred animals. Therefore, to prevent erroneous parentage assignments, it is important to have information for both parents.

Species Tested
  • ATC-053 : Camelid
  • ATE-056 : Equine
  • ATO-084 : Others species
    Including but not limited to :
    Bovine, Cat, Chicken,
    Cheetah, Canine, Caprine,
    Dolphin, Falcon, Houbara,
    Hyena, Lion, Penguin,
    Shark, Sheep, Tiger, Vulture.

Method PCR and fragment analysis.
Sample Type
EDTA blood, Hair.
For other type of samples please contact MBG Lab.
Transport Condition EDTA blood should be transported at 4°C and hair sample at room temperature.
Turn Around Time (TAT) Within 10 working days for normal processing.

Links

ISAG Rank 1
Assay Code See Below
Description Each individual has a unique genotype that stays the same throughout the life of an individual. A DNA profile using STR markers is generated and can be used for identity verification. Samples can be submitted to be compared to previously generated DNA profiles. Many commercially important animals are genotyped at birth and this profile accompanies them during export/ import. Identity verification can be used to trace a sample to the individual and is important in racing industry, reproductive studies and for meat adulteration tests.

Species Tested
  • ATC-089 : Camelid
  • ATE-087 : Equine
  • ATO-063 : Others species
    Including but not limited to :
    Bovine, Cat, Chicken,
    Cheetah, Canine, Caprine,
    Dolphin, Falcon, Houbara,
    Hyena, Lion, Penguin,
    Shark, Sheep, Tiger, Vulture.

Method PCR and fragment analysis.
Sample Type
EDTA blood, Hair.
For other type of samples please contact MBG Lab.
Transport Condition EDTA blood should be transported at 4°C and hair sample at room temperature.
Turn Around Time (TAT) Within 10 working days for normal processing.

Links

Validated
Assay Code AOT-097
Description The knowledge about relatedness is important for our understanding of breeding management and conservation of animals and can be studied using DNA markers. Here at MBG, we do relatedness analysis using STR markers. Relatedness can be described by the probabilities that any two individuals share either zero, one or two alleles that are identical-by-descent. More probabilities are needed if the individuals are inbred, meaning that their parents were related. Relatedness is best estimated by using highly polymorphic STR markers, to minimize the ambiguity between identity-by-state(IBS) and identity-by-descent(IBD).

Species Tested
  • Canine
  • Cat
  • Cheetah
  • Houbara
  • Hyena
  • Lion
  • Tiger

Transport Condition EDTA blood should be transported at 4°C and hair sample at room temperature.
Turn Around Time (TAT) Within 10 working days for normal processing.

Links