Molecular Biology & Genetics Laboratory

Pathogen Identification


Molecular based methods like PCR, Real-Time PCR and more recently next generation sequencing (NGS) have revolutionized the field of veterinary diagnostics. At MBG Lab, we offer detection of pathogenic viruses, bacteria and parasites using molecular methods, which are fast and highly sensitive to detect microbial pathogens in various specimens. MBG lab is an ISO 17025 accredited facility and benefits from an isolated containment level 3 facility for processing highly (level 3) contagious pathogens.


All Bacteria Virus Fungi Parasite


Accredited
Assay Code See Below
Description African horse sickness (AHS) virus is a double stranded RNA virus of the family Reoviridae and causes African horse sickness in horses and related species such as mules, donkeys, and zebras. Horses are most severely affected by the disease. AHS is endemic in the central tropical regions of Africa and has occasionally extended to Egypt, the Middle East and the southern Arabian Peninsula.

The disease spreads mainly by the bite of insects such as midges (Culicoides) but direct horse to horse transmission does not occur. The virus can only survive through continuous cycles of transmission between its hosts-horses and insects. It does not survive in the environment outside of the host. Clinical signs are typically seen five to seven days after infection in the form of fever, redness of the inside surface of the eyelids. The disease progresses to one of the following forms: pulmonary form, cardiac form or mixed form.

There are nine distinct serotypes of AHSV (AHSV-1 to AHSV-9) . Any of the strains can cause disease with severity ranging from a mild fever to sudden death. The serotypes can be distinguished in serum neutralisation tests by the specificity of their reactions with neutralising antibodies. Molecular methods for determination of AHSV serotypes have been developed based on a set of nine individual ‘typing’ assays to detect and identify Seg-2 of each AHSV serotype.

Pathogens Tested
  • APA-001 : African horse sickness virus
  • APA-182 : African horse sickness virus Serotyping

Method Real -Time RT-PCR
Sample Type
EDTA Blood, Tissue (Spleen, Lung, Lymph nodes) , Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C and delivered within 24h of collection
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code See Below
Description Aspergillus spp. has been found worldwide in almost all domestic and wild animals, ranging from insects and corals to NHP. Aspergillosis is a common infection in birds, particularly pet parrots, penguins, captive raptors, mallards and other ducks, turkeys, and Japanese quail, in which it causes pulmonary and air sac infection. Aspergillosis has also been described in cats and dogs in which it affects only the nasal passages. In large animals, Aspergillus infection is assumed to be rare but has been reported with increasing frequency. It can lead to various diseases like mycotic abortion and gland infection in cows as well as guttural pouch involvement in horses. In marine mammals, airways are usually initially affected leading to pneumonia, but other organs including the brain may also be infected following fatal dissemination. The most frequently identified pathogens are Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus, ubiquitous organisms capable of living under extensive environmental stress.

Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic pathogen and the primary cause of invasive aspergillosis. Triazole antifungals are used to treat aspergillosis. However, triazole-resistant A. fumigatus infections are increasingly reported worldwide and are associated with increased treatment failure and mortality. This fungus can acquire resistance to azole antifungals due to mutations in the azole target (Cyp51A). Cyp51A mutations typical for environmental azole resistance acquisition (for example, TR34/L98H) have been reported in many cases. These mutations can also be found in isolates recovered from patients.

Pathogens Tested
  • APA-098 : Aspergillus fumigatus/ terreus/ flavus
  • APA-189 : Azole-resistance profiling of Cyp51A gene

Method Aspergillus fumigatus / terreus / flavus by Multi Real-Time PCR (This assay includes the detection and differentiation of Aspergillus fumigatus / terreus / flavus)
Azole-resistance profiling of Cyp51A gene (This assay detects selected mutations in the Cyp51A gene related to azole-resistance, by PCR and sequencing).
Sample Type
Culture, EDTA Blood, Swab / Secretion (Respiratory), Tissue.
Transport Condition Sample should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 10 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 7 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code APA-002
Description The adenoviruses are a group of non-enveloped, icosahedral DNA viruses. Adenovirus infections are ubiquitous in commercially farmed birds, and probably in all avian species.

The avian adenoviruses can be divided into three groups. Group I, or conventional adenoviruses, share a common group antigen. Group II adenoviruses include the viruses of turkey haemorrhagic enteritis (THE), marble spleen disease (MSD) and group II splenomegaly of chickens. These viruses also share a common antigen. Group III viruses, the egg drop syndrome (EDS) viruses, are widely distributed in waterfowl but can easily infect chickens, resulting in the production of abnormal eggshells. While many infections are subclinical and appear to be of little economic or welfare importance, significant outbreaks of disease associated with adenovirus do occur.

Method PCR and gel electrophoresis
Sample Type
Faeces, Tissue (trachea, bursa, nasal mucosa, pharynx, lungs, kidney), Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C and delivered within 24h of collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Accredited
Assay Code APB-003
Description Bluetongue (BT) is an infectious, non -contagious, vector-borne viral disease that affects wild and domestic ruminants such as sheep, goats, cattle, buffaloes, deer, most species of African antelope and various other vertebrate hosts. It is transmitted by midges, small insects, of the genus Culicoides. In sheep,Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes an acute disease with high morbidity and mortality. Infection of cattle with BTV does not usually result in clinical signs, with the exception of BTV 8 infection in Europe. Cattle are particularly significant in the epidemiology of the disease due to the prolonged viraemia in the absence of clinical disease. Clinical signs of BT include fever, hyperaemia and congestion, swelling of the face and tongue and cyanosis of the tongue. However in mild cases of the disease, a transitory hyperaemia and slight ocular and nasal discharge may be observed.

Method Real-Time RT-PCR
Sample Type
Accredited : EDTA Blood.
Alternatives : Culture, Tissue.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C and delivered within 24h of collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code APB-193
Description Bornavirus is a non-enveloped negative strand ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus. Because it uniquely replicates in the cell nucleus, it has been classified in its own family, Bornaviridae. In 2008, ABV was identified as the causative agent of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) in psittacines, but the primary reservoir for ABV appears to be waterfowl. 

The epidemiology of avian bornavirus infections is poorly characterized, including the natural reservoir(s) of infection and routes of virus transmission. The incubation period in experimentally infected birds ranges from 20 to 200 days after inoculation. Bornavirus RNA can be detected in the feces and cloacal and crop contents of naturally infected birds

Method Real -Time RT-PCR.
Sample Type
EDTA Blood, Tissue (Brain), Feather(Plucked from breast).
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Tissue must be sent in RNA preservative media.
It is not required to add RNA preservative media to blood and feather. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Accredited
Assay Code APB-004
Description Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is a single stranded RNA virus and belongs to the genus Pestivirus, family Flaviviridae. It causes Bovine virus diarrhea which is a contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants and is closely related to Classical swine fever (CSF) which is also caused by a pestivirus. BVD is a notifiable disease and eradication programs are administered in many countries worldwide.

BVDV occurs in two forms: noncytopathogenic and cytopathogenic. There are two antigenically distinct genotypes (types 1 and 2), and virus isolates within these groups exhibit considerable biological and antigenic diversity. BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 can be distinguished by genetic analyses and have subtle immunological differences. The genome of BVDV-1 is 12.57 kb long while that of the BVDV-2 is 12.26 kb long.

BVDV remains infective only for short periods outside of the host and is very susceptible to detergents, light, temperature changes and other environmental conditions. It is mainly transmitted by close contact with persistently infected or acutely infected cattle/sheep via the oral or nasal routes, although bulls also shed the virus in semen. During acute infections, a brief viraemia may be detectable and nasal shedding of virus may occur. Acutely infected animals shed the virus for about 2 weeks, whereas persistently infected animals shed in all bodily secretions for life, thus acting as viral reservoirs.

Method Real-Time RT- PCR.
Sample Type
Accredited : Tissue (lung, spleen), Milk, Culture.
Alternatives : EDTA Blood, Semen, Urine, Stool, Swab/Secretion (Respiratory), Swab/Secretion (Rectal).
Transport Condition Swabs / secretion and tissue should be transported at 4°C. Urine, milk, stool and semen samples must be frozen after collection and delivered within 24 hours.
It is required to add RNA preservative media to swabs / secretion and tissue only. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Accredited
Assay Code See Below
Description Brucellosis is a contagious disease of livestock caused by several species of the genus Brucella, mainly Brucella abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis. Infection with Brucella in cattle is usually caused by B. abortus, less frequently by B. melitensis, and occasionally by B. suis. Brucella melitensis is the main causative agent of infection with Brucella in sheep and goats. Infection with Brucella in pigs is due to B. suis biovars 1-3, but the disease caused by biovar 2 differs in its host range, its limited geographical distribution, and its pathogenicity. Clinically, infection with Brucella in animals is characterized by one or more of the following signs: abortion, retained placenta, orchitis, epididymitis and, rarely, arthritis, with excretion of the organisms in uterine discharges and in milk. Diagnosis depends on the isolation of Brucella from abortion material, udder secretions or from tissues removed at post-mortem.

Pathogens Tested
  • APB-023 : Brucella abortus (This Assay includes the detection of Brucella species and Brucella abortus)
  • APB-024 : Brucella melitensis (This Assay includes the detection of Brucella species and Brucella melitensis)
  • APB-025 : Brucella Species (This Assay includes the detection of Brucella species only. This Assay can detect many Brucella species including B.abortus, B.melitensis, B.suis and B. canis)

Method Real-Time PCR
Sample Type
Accredited : Tissue (fetal, reticulo-endothelial system), EDTA Blood, Milk, Culture.
Alternatives : Swab / Secretions (Genital).
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Milk must be frozen after collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code See Below
Description Burkholderia mallei is a gram negative bipolar aerobic bacterium belonging to the genus Burkholderia. It causes a contagious and fatal disease in horses, donkeys, and mules which is called Glanders. According to the location of the initial infection, the disease presents itself in four different forms; nasal, pulmonary, cutaneous and asymptomatic carrier. The nasal and pulmonary forms tend to be more acute while the cutaneous form is a chronic process. Inflammatory nodules and ulcers develop in the nasal passages and give rise to a sticky yellow discharge. Stellate scarring follows upon healing of the ulcers. The formation of nodular abscesses in the lungs is accompanied by progressive debility, coughing and may also be accompanied by diarrhoea. In the cutaneous form (farcy), the lymph vessels are enlarged; nodular abscesses form along their course, which then ulcerate and discharge yellow pus. Nodules are regularly found in the liver and spleen, leading to wasting and death.Control of glanders requires early detection and diagnostic testing of suspected clinical cases, screening of apparently normal equids, and elimination of positive cases.

Burkholderia pseudomallei infects animals and causes the disease melioidosis. B. pseudomallei is an opportunistic pathogen and affects many animal species; infection generally results from grazing on contaminated soil or drinking contaminated water. Infected animals can excrete the organism in saliva, pus, urine, and feces. Severe disease occurs in sheep and goats but cattle, dogs, cats, horses, buffalo, rodents, camels, nonhuman primates, some species of birds, and tropical fish, also get infected. The incubation period for animals is variable ranging from a few days to many years. Some abscesses are carried asymptotically. The signs of melioidosis in animals vary depending on species, but generally include depression, fever, weight loss, respiratory signs (heavy breathing, sneezing), lameness and swelling of the joints, and potentially death. Any animals showing signs of illness should be promptly isolated.

Pathogens Tested
  • APB-026 : Burkholderia mallei.
  • APB-027 : Burkholderia pseudomallei.

Method Real-Time PCR
Sample Type
Swab/Secretion (Respiratory), Tissue ( ulcers, trachea, larynx, lymph nodes, lesions), Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Accredited
Assay Code See Below
Description Campylobacteriosis is a bacterial disease caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. These bacteria do not normally cause clinical disease in adult animals except for sporadic cases of abortion in ruminants and very rare cases of hepatitis in ostriches. However, it can be an important source of human food-borne disease through the faecal contamination of meat (especially poultry meat) during processing. The organism can be isolated from faeces, rectal swabs, or caecal contents of mammals (farm animals, cats, and dogs) and birds.

Pathogens Tested
  • APC-029 : Campylobacter coli
  • APC-028 : Campylobacter jejuni

Method Real -Time PCR
Sample Type
Accredited : Culture.
Alternatives : Stool, Swab/Secretion (Rectal), Enriched meat.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool must be frozen after collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code APC-030
Description Mycoplasma haemolamae, a member of the hemoplasmas within the family Mycoplasmataceae, is a small bacteria, generally < 1 micron (usually ~ 0.4 and 0.6 um) in diameter, lacking a cell wall. It is a hemotropic mycoplasma with tropism for the red blood cells (RBC) of llamas, alpacas, and guanacos. Organisms from the two genera  Hemobartonella  and Eperythrozoon  have been reclassified as hemotrophic Mycoplasma spp. (hemoplasmas). Different species of these hemotrophic organisms infect many vertebrates, including pigs, sheep, cattle, dogs, and cats. In camelids and other nonsplenectomized animals, hemotrophic Mycoplasmas may be an incidental finding on blood smear evaluation, but in ill or immunocompromised animals, they may cause mild to severe anemia.

The typical mode of transmission of  M. haemolamae in the llama and alpaca is not known. However, studies in swine, dogs, and cats support blood sucking or biting insects, including lice, fleas, and ticks, as vectors of the hemotrophic Mycoplasma spp. Oral uptake of blood components and indirect transmission via contact with blood contaminated syringes or surgical instruments following tattooing, tail docking, or castration are additional methods of transmission of Mycoplasma spp. in swine. Mycoplasma haemolamae has the potential to impact the camelid industry by creating chronically infected individuals that show no signs of disease, or animals with chronic, insidious disease with signs of disease including weight loss and inappetance.

Method Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
EDTA Blood, Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code APC-031
Description Chlamydia and chlamydophila are two genera belonging to the family Chlamydiaceae. Avian chlamydiosis (caused by Chlamydophila psittaci) was originally termed psittacosis, or parrot fever, as the disease was originally recognised in psittacine birds. Also, Chalmydial disease from domestic poultry and wild birds other than psittacine birds was previously called ornithosis. These diseases are now considered all similar and referred to as avian chlamydiosis.

Chlamydiae are known to infect most species of domestic poultry, pet birds and wild birds causing varying degrees of infection. Chlamydial infections have been identified in over 150 species of wild birds. Persistently infected carrier birds are known to be a source of chlamydiosis in the pet bird industry. In poultry, the disease varies from one producing high morbidity and mortality to one that is asymptomatic. Typical clinical signs with a strain of high virulence include pneumoenteritis with respiratory signs, mucopurulent ocular or nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, diarrhoea, polyuria and dullness. Strains of low virulence produce clinical signs that are similar but less severe and less extensive. Asymptomatic infections can occur with strains of both low and high virulence.

Infected birds shed chlamydiae in both the respiratory excretions and in faeces. A susceptible bird can become infected through inhalation of airborne contaminated material or through ingestion of contaminated feeds.

Method Real -Time PCR.
Sample Type
Stool, Swab / Secretion (Rectal), Swab / Secretion (Respiratory), Swab/ Secretion (Conjunctival), Tissue, Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool must be frozen after collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code APC-032
Description The C. perfringens species is a very heterogeneous group of organisms with respect to their metabolic byproducts, toxins and pathogenic potential. C. perfringens is classified into five toxigenic types (A through E), based on their ability to produce any of the four major lethal toxins alpha, beta, epsilon and iota. However, there is a considerable lack of knowledge regarding the distribution of C. perfringens types, their pathogenesis, diagnosis and the incidence of diseases caused by this organism.

Type A is the most common of all the C. perfringens types and the most variable in toxigenic properties. Its role in the pathogenesis of diseases is not fully understood. Type A can be subdivided into two varieties based on its toxigenic behaviour; the "classical" variety, characterized mainly by alphatoxin production and is associated with gas gangrene, traumatic infections, avian necrotic enteritis and the normal intestinal tract, and the enterotoxigenic variety, characterized by enterotoxin production and capable of causing human enteritis.

Type B produces both beta- and epsilon-toxins, but beta-toxin is usually the principal component.

The principal lethal toxin in all varieties of C. perfringens type C is beta-toxin. The enterotoxigenic C. perfringens appears to originate from animals since most of the sources incriminated in food poisoning outbreaks have been meats, particularly beef and poultry.

Type D is the best known pathogenic C. perfringens type and widely regarded as the causative organism of fatal enterotoxemia of sheep or "overeating disease". It produces epsilon-toxin which is almost exclusively responsible for the host pathology and subsequent death.
This assay can detect alpha, beta-2, epsilon, iota and enterotoxin.

Method Multi Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
Stool, Swab / Secretion (Rectal), Intestinal Content, Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool must be frozen after collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code APC-188
Description Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is a gram-positive, facultative intracellular pathogen and the etiologic agent of the disease known as caseous lymphadenitis (CL). CL mainly affects small ruminants, such as goats and sheep. It also causes ulcerative lymphangitis, external subcutaneous abscesses, and internal infection in horses. Infection has also been reported in cattle, buffalo and camelids. In camels, C. pseudotuberculosis affects almost 10% of the population in a herd.
Although C. pseudotuberculosis causes major health and productivity problems for livestock, little is known about the molecular basis of its pathogenicity.

Method Real -Time PCR.
Sample Type
Culture, Milk, EDTA Blood, Tissue, Swab / Secretion (Organ/Abscess).
Transport Condition Sample should be transported at 4°C. Milk must be frozen after collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Accredited
Assay Code APC-033
Description Coxiella burnetii is a gram negative cocco bacillus that causes Q-fever disease in animals. It belongs to a group of organisms known as Rickettsia. The infection has been found in various wild and domestic animals and birds and in some arthropods, such as ticks. The species most commonly infected are cattle, sheep and goats. Infections with Coxiella burnetii include placentitis (inflammation of the placenta) and subsequent abortion in cattle, sheep and goats.

Outside the animal the bacteria assumes a small, dense, long lasting spore-like form which is able to resist heat and drying. It can then contaminate dust and spread by wind for long distances. It is so highly infectious that a single inhaled organism can cause clinical illness in an animal or person. Outbreaks typically occur following a birth or abortion where the environment becomes contaminated with birth fluids. Q-fever can also be spread by ticks which pass the bacteria from an infected to a susceptible animal, and whose feces contain the bacteria thus also contaminating the environment. The organism may be present in the reproductive fluids or raw milk from infected animals. Animal vaccination has been used in areas where the infections are common. More generally, sanitary measures to remove afterbirth and birth fluids, and to clean and disinfect areas where animals have given birth can prevent the disease from spreading.

Q-fever is listed in the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code and Member Countries and Territories are obligated to report occurrences of the disease to the OIE. This assay is used for the detection of both C. burnetii and C. symbiont, however, it cannot differentiate between the two subtypes.

Method Real -Time PCR
Sample Type
Accredited : Culture, EDTA Blood, Milk, Tissue (Placental).
Alternatives : Swab / Secretion (Genital).
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Milk must be frozen after collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Accredited
Assay Code APE-006
Description Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is a single stranded positive sense RNA genome classified in the genus, Arterivirus, family Arteriviridae. Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is a reportable, highly contagious disease associated with sporadic outbreaks of acute respiratory disease and abortion in horses. Infection can spread between horses at mating, by artificial insemination with contaminated semen, by contact with aborted foetuses, or by direct contact with droplets from the respiratory tract, i.e. through coughing and snorting.

EAV primarily infects macrophages and vessel endothelium throughout a horse's body. The initial infection is followed by viral dissemination via the bloodstream, resulting in viremia. Clinical signs first appear two to 13 (average seven) days after infection, and a fever may continue for two to nine days. Acutely infected horses shed the virus in nasal secretions for up to 16 days. EVA is a notifiable disease of horses. The diseases' greatest economic impact is on the horse-breeding industry.

Method Real -Time RT-PCR.
Sample Type
Accredited : Swab / Secretion (Respiratory), Swab / Secretion (Conjunctival), Culture.
Alternatives : Blood (buffy coat), Semen, Urine, Tissue.
Transport Condition Swabs / secretion and tissue should be transported at 4°C. Urine and semen samples must be frozen after collection and delivered within 24 hours. It is required to add RNA preservative media to swabs / secretion and tissue only. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Accredited
Assay Code See Below
Description Equine herpes virus1 (EHV1) and Equine herpes virus4 (EHV4) are double stranded DNA viruses of the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, genus Varicellovirus.They are clinically and pathologically indistinguishable and are the primary pathogens causing respiratory tract disease in young horses from weanling to 2 years of age. EHV1 and EHV4 are major causes of abortion and respiratory disease in horses, respectively, whereas EHV1 also causes occasional neurological defects in horses. The virus can spread through the air, contaminated equipment, clothing and hands. Clinical signs are most intense and virus shedding most abundant during the first few days of infection. The time between an initial EHV1 infection of the respiratory tract and the onset of neurological signs is about 8-12 days. The neurological symptoms appear suddenly and reach peak intensity within 48 hours.

EHV4 causes rhinopneumonitis in horses and respiratory infection in foals, leaving a lifelong latent infection in affected animals. These horses are usually the source for new infection in foals over two months old, weanlings, and yearlings. Symptoms include fever, loss of appetite, and nasal discharge. Most infected animals recover in one to three weeks, but death can occur in environments with overcrowding and other stress factors. EHV4 rarely causes abortion in infected pregnant mares unlike its EHV1 counterpart.

Pathogens Tested
  • APE-007 : Equine herpes virus 1
  • APE-099 : Equine herpes virus 4

Method Real -Time PCR
Sample Type
Swab / Secretion (Respiratory), Tissue (Fetal and placental), Culture, EDTA Blood.
Transport Condition Sample should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code APE-008
Description Equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV)is a retrovirus (ssRNA) belonging to the lentivirus subfamily of Retroviridae. Equine infectious anaemia (EIA) occurs world-wide. The infection, formerly known as swamp fever, is limited to equids. The disease is characterised by recurrent febrile episodes, thrombocytopenia, anaemia, rapid loss of weight and oedema of the lower parts of the body. The incubation period is normally 1-3 weeks, but may be as long as 3 months. In acute cases, lymph nodes, spleen and liver are hyperaemic and enlarged. Once a horse is infected with EIAV, its blood remains infectious for the remainder of its life. This means that the horse is a viraemic carrier and can potentially transmit the infection to other horses. Transmission occurs by transfer of blood from an infected horse. EIAV is not considered a risk for human health.

Method Real-Time RT-PCR.
Sample Type
EDTA Blood, Tissue, Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. All samples must be delivered within 24 h of collection.
Tissue must be sent in RNA Preservative media. It is not required to add RNA preservative media to blood and culture. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Accredited
Assay Code APE-046
Description Theileria equi (T. equi) and Babesia caballi (B. caballi) are single celled parasitic protozoans closely related to plasmodium and cause equine piroplasmosis. It does not survive outside its hosts and can only be transmitted through a tick vector, affecting all equine species, such as horses, mules, donkeys and zebras. Infected animals may remain carriers of these blood parasites for long periods and act as sources of infection for other ticks. The disease primarily occurs throughout the tropics and subtropics. The protozoa invades the red blood cells of infected animals, leading to disease.
The clinical signs of equine piroplasmosis are often nonspecific, and the disease can easily be confused with other similar hemolytic conditions presenting fever, anemia and jaundice. The disease is not directly contagious. Rather it is transferred by blood from an infected animal to a susceptible animal or insect. Documented case fatality rates vary from 10-50%. Most animals in endemic areas survive infection.
Equine piroplasmosis is a "reportable disease" under the Health of Animals Act. Equine piroplasmosis can occur in per-acute, acute, sub-acute and chronic forms. This assay is used for the detection of both Theileria equi and Babesia caballi, however, it cannot be used to differentiate between the two subtypes.

Method Real- Time PCR
Sample Type
Accredited : EDTA blood.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Accredited
Assay Code APF-009
Description Foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus is single stranded positive sense RNA virus of the family Picornaviridae. It causes a severe, highly contagious viral disease of livestock that has a significant economic impact. The disease affects cattle, swine, sheep, goats and other cloven-hoofed ruminants. FMD is characterized by fever and blister-like sores on the tongue and lips, in the mouth, on the teats and between the hooves. The virus is found in excretions and secretions of infected animals and infection spreads to other animals via the respiratory or oral routes .
The incubation period of the disease is 2-14 days.The virus may be present in milk and semen for up to 4 days before the animal shows clinical signs of disease. The severity of clinical signs will depend on the strain of virus, the exposure dose, the age and species of animal and the host immunity
There are seven strains of the FMD virus (A, O, C, SAT1, SAT2, SAT3, and Asia1) which are endemic in different countries worldwide. Morbidity can reach 100% in susceptible populations. Mortality is generally low in adult animals (1-5%), but higher in young calves, lambs and piglets (20% or higher).

Method Real-Time RT-PCR
Sample Type
Accredited : EDTA Blood, Tissue, Secretions, Culture.
Alternatives : Serum.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. All samples must be delivered within 24 h of collection.
Tissue and secretions must be sent in RNA Preservative media. It is not required to add RNA preservative media to blood, serum and culture. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Research Use Only
Assay Code APH-047
Description Gastric or cutaneous habronemosis caused by Habronema microstoma Creplin, 1849 and Habronema muscae Carter, 1865 is a parasitic disease of equids transmitted by muscid flies. There is a paucity of information on the epidemiology of this disease, which is mainly due to limitations with diagnosis in the live animal and with the identification of the parasites in the intermediate hosts.

Method PCR and gel electrophoresis.
Sample Type
Stool, Flies.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool must be frozen after collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Research Use Only
Assay Code APH-048
Description Gastric or cutaneous habronemosis caused by Habronema microstoma Creplin, 1849 and Habronema muscae Carter, 1865 is a parasitic disease of equids transmitted by muscid flies. There is a paucity of information on the epidemiology of this disease, which is mainly due to limitations with diagnosis in the live animal and with the identification of the parasites in the intermediate hosts.

Method PCR and gel electrophoresis
Sample Type
Stool, Flies.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool must be frozen after collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code APH-123
Description Histoplasma capsulatum is an ascomycetous fungus and belongs to the fungal family Ajellomycetaceae. It causes Histoplasmosis which is a type of lung infection caused by inhaling the fungal spores of Histoplasma capsulatum . Histoplasma capsulatum is dimorphic and switches from a mould-like (filamentous) growth form in the natural habitat to a small budding yeast form in the warm-blooded animal host. Histoplasma capsulatum appears to be strongly associated with the droppings of certain bird species as well as bats. A mixture of these droppings and certain soil types is particularly conducive to proliferation. In highly endemic areas there is a strong association with soil under and around chicken houses, and with areas where soil or vegetation has become heavily contaminated with faecal material deposited by flocking birds such as starlings and blackbirds.

Method Real -Time PCR
Sample Type
Culture, EDTA blood, Swab / Secretion (Respiratory), Swab / Secretion (Organ/Abscess).
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code API-011
Description Avian Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a positive sense, single-stranded RNA virus of the Coronaviridae Family. This virus causes acute respiratory disease in chickens. This family of viruses has an exceptionally large genome of up to 31Kbp in length.
Upon infection with IBV, the virion binds to the host cell via cell surface molecules. The virus is then introduced to the cell cytoplasm either by fusion or by receptor mediated endocytosis. They multiply in the host cell and then exocytosed to be able to infect new host cells.
IBV infection in chickens presents with respiratory distress which can lead to a decrease in egg production or quality. The virus is spread quickly between individuals leading to a morbidity rate of 100% in bird populations that have not been vaccinated.

Method Real-Time RT-PCR.
Sample Type
Tissue, Organ swab (2 swabs), Respiratory swab (2 swabs), Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C and must be delivered within 24 h of collection.
Tissue and swabs must be sent in RNA Preservative media. It is not required to add RNA preservative media to culture. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code API-010
Description Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a double stranded RNA virus that has a bi-segmented genome and belongs to the genus Avibirnavirus of family Birnaviridae. The two segments, A and B, are enclosed within a nonenveloped icosahedral capsid. IBD is a highly contagious disease of young chickens caused by infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), characterized by immunosuppression and mortality generally at 3 to 6 weeks of age. The disease is also called as Gumboro disease since it was first discovered in Gumboro, Delaware in 1962.
There are two distinct serotypes of the virus, but only serotype 1 viruses cause disease in poultry.
It is economically important to the poultry industry worldwide due to increased susceptibility to other diseases and negative interference with effective vaccination. In recent years, very virulent strains of IBDV (vvIBDV), causing severe mortality in chicken, have emerged in Europe, Latin America, South-East Asia, Africa and the Middle East.

Method Real -Time RT- PCR.
Sample Type
EDTA blood, Tissue, FTA card, Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C and must be delivered within 24 h of collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Accredited
Assay Code See Below
Description There are three types of influenza viruses: A, B, and C. Influenza A viruses are members of the family Orthomyxoviridae and are further classified by subtype on the basis of the two main surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA).

Birds usually get affected by Type A flu virus, also called as Avian Influenza (AI) virus which constantly evolves by mutation and re-assortment and is generally responsible for the large flu epidemics. The AI virus affects several species of food producing birds (chickens, turkeys, quails, guinea fowl, etc.), as well as pet birds and wild birds. Occasionally mammals may contract avian influenza. There are many AI virus strains, which are usually classified into two categories according to the severity of the disease in poultry:

  • highly pathogenic (HPAI) strains, which can cause severe clinical signs and potentially high mortality rates among poultry, e.g. Avian influenza A viruses of the subtypes H5 and H7, including H5N1, H7N7, and H7N3 viruses, have been associated with HPAI.
  • low pathogenic (LPAI) strains, which typically cause few or no clinical signs in poultry, e.g Influenza H9 virus, which has been identified only in a "low pathogenicity" form. However, LPAI viruses have the potential to evolve into HPAI viruses and this has been documented in some poultry outbreaks.

Equine influenza is caused by two distinct subtypes (H7N7, formerly equi -1, and H3N8, formerly equi -2) of the influenza A virus. It is an acute respiratory infection of horses, donkeys, mules and other equidae. The disease has an incubation period of only one to three days and is capable of causing explosive outbreaks. Horses with horse flu can run a fever, have a dry, hacking cough, runny nose, and become depressed and reluctant to eat or drink for several days, but they usually recover in two to three weeks.

Type B flu virus, unlike the type A flu viruses, is found only in humans. Type B flu may cause a less severe reaction than type A flu virus, but occasionally, it can be extremely harmful. Influenza type B viruses are not classified by subtype and do not cause pandemics.

The influenza C virus infects humans, dogs and pigs, is less common than the other types. It usually causes only mild disease.

Pathogens TestedTesting is available for Influenza A and B, Avian Influenza, Equine Influenza, Influenza H5N1, Subtyping of Influenza (N1 to N9, H1 to H16).

Refer to the service list for more details.

Method
  • Real-Time RT- PCR
  • PCR
  • Sequencing.
Sample Type
Accredited : Swab/Secretion (Respiratory), Swab/Secretion (Rectal), Tissue.
Specimens must be sent in RNA Preservative media.
Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Alternatives : Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code See Below
Description Legionella is characterized as gram-negative, aerobic, encapsulated bacilli. Legionnaires' disease, or Legionellosis, is a severe infection caused by Legionella species, primarily L. pneumophila which is responsible for 90% of infections. The disease typically presents as pneumonia and symptoms may include a high fever, chills, cough, muscle aches, headaches, and diarrhoea. Legionella species is also linked to Pontiac fever, which is an acute, febrile, self-limited illness. The infection is generally characterized by fever, fatigue, and muscle pain.

The bacterium is found in environmental water sources, potable water, such as that from faucets, showers, and hot water tanks and cooling towers, and hot tubs. Legionella infection can occur in a variety of hosts. Modes of transmission of Legionella include the aspiration of water contaminated with the organism and inhalation of aerosols containing Legionella. Although uncommon in animals, predisposing factors such as poor hygiene, bad management, and insufficient and/or unbalanced feeding seem to be important in the occurrence of the disease.

Pathogens Tested
  • APL-035 : Legionella Species (This Assay includes the detection of Legionella Species only. This Assay can detect Legionella pneumophila, L. adelaidensis, L. anisa, L. birminghamensis, L. bozemanii , L. brunensis, L. cherii , L. cincinnatiensis, L. dumoffii, L. erythra , L. feelei, L. gormanii, L. gratiana, L. hackeliae, L.israelensis, L. jamestownensis, L. jordanis, L. lansingensis, L. longbeachae, L. maceachernii , L. micdadei , L. moravica, L. oakridgensis paucimobilis , L. parisiensis, L. quinlivanii, L. rubrilucens, L. sainthelensis, L. spiritensis, L. steigerwaltii , L. taurinensis, L. tucsonensis, L. wadsworthii)
  • APL-034 : Legionella pneumophila (This Assay includes the detection of Legionella species and subtype Legionella pneumophila.)

Method Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
Urine, Swab/Secretion (Respiratory), Water, Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Urine sample must be frozen after collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Accredited
Assay Code APL-036
Description Leptospirosis is a transmissible disease of animals caused by infection with any of the pathogenic members of the genus Leptospira, which are aerobic, right-handed helical bacteria. Leptospirosis has a global distribution, and leptospires have been detected in more than 180 species of animals. Mammals are the only class of animals capable of transmitting Leptospira organisms, even though leptospires have been identified in reptiles and birds.

Clinical symptoms of acute leptospirosis include: sudden onset of agalactia (in adult milking cattle and sheep); icterus and haemoglobinuria, especially in young animals; meningitis; and acute renal failure or jaundice in dogs. Chronic leptospirosis results in abortion, stillbirth, birth of weak offspring (premature), infertility, chronic renal failure or chronic active hepatitis in dogs; and cases of periodic ophthalmia in horses.

Method Real-Time PCR
Sample Type
Accredited : EDTA Blood, Tissue (liver, lung, brain, kidney), Culture.
Alternatives : Urine, Milk, Cerebrospinal Fluid, Thoracic Fluid, Peritoneal Fluid.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Urine sample must be frozen after collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code APN-020
Description In September 2012, health authorities were notified of several cases of severe hCoV infection caused by a novel virus type hCoV-EMC. The strain was redefined by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses into Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) since it was first reported in Saudi Arabia.

MERS-CoV is a beta coronavirus and causes respiratory infection of humans and dromedary camels. Several studies have confirmed that Dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) are the natural host and zoonotic source of the MERS-CoV infection in humans. Other animal species may also be susceptible to infection with MERS-CoV. However, their epidemiological significance has not been proven.

Positive RT-PCR results for MERS-CoV or isolation of the virus from dromedary camels are notifiable to the OIE . While the impact of MERS-CoV on animal health is very low, human infections have a significant public health impact.

Method Real-Time RT-PCR.
Sample Type
Accredited : Swab / Secretion (Respiratory).
Alternatives : Culture, Serum.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Specimens must be sent in RNA preservative media. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code See Below
Description Mycobacterium is a genus of Actinobacteria, family Mycobacteriaceae. Over 190 species are recognized in this genus. This genus includes pathogens known to cause serious diseases in mammals, including tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and leprosy (Mycobacterium leprae) in humans. Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic disease of animals and humans caused by Mycobacterium bovis. In a large number of countries it is a major infectious disease among cattle, other domesticated animals, and certain wildlife species. Other members of the Mycobacterium genus include M. caprae (considered to be a primary pathogen of goats) and M. pinnipedii, a pathogen of fur seals and sea lions. Aerosol exposure to M. bovis is considered to be the most frequent route of infection of cattle, but infection by ingestion of contaminated material also occurs. After infection, nonvascular nodular granulomas known as tubercles may develop. Characteristic tuberculous lesions occur most frequently in the lungs and the retropharyngeal, bronchial and mediastinal lymph nodes as well as liver, spleen and other organs. Clinical signs include weakness, anorexia, emaciation, dyspnoea, enlargement of lymph nodes, and cough, particularly with advanced tuberculosis.

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is an obligate pathogenic bacterium and the causative agent of Johne's disease, which affects ruminants such as cattle, and also causes Crohn's disease in humans.

Avian tuberculosis, or avian mycobacteriosis, is an important disease that affects companion, captive exotic, wild and domestic birds and mammals and is most often caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (M. a. avium).The disease is characterized by chronic and progressive wasting, weakness and diarrhoea. The primary lesions of avian tuberculosis in birds are nearly always in the intestinal tract. Diagnosis of avian tuberculosis in birds depends on the demonstration of M. avium avium) in excretions or secretions of live birds or liver and spleen of dead birds.

Pathogens Tested
  • APM-037 : Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium (This assay includes the detection of Mycobacterium species and Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium.)
  • APM-038 : Mycobacterium Species (This assay includes the detection of Mycobacterium species only. This Assay can detect M. austroafricanum, M.avium subsp. avium,M.bovis BCG, M.chelonae,M.gordonae, M.fortuitum subsp.fortuitum, M.insubricum, M.intracellulare, M.kansasii, M.marium, M.mucogenicum, M.peregrinum, M.porcinum, M.scrofulaceum, M.setense, M.simiae, M.smegmatis, M.terrae, M.tuberculosis, M.ulcerans, M.xenopi)
  • APM-039 : Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (This assay includes the detection of Mycobacterium species and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.)
  • APM-100: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (This assay includes the detection of Mycobacterium species and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.)

Method Real- Time PCR.
Sample Type
Tissue (Intestinal tract, liver, spleen), Stool, Culture, Swab/Secretion (Respiratory), Milk, CSF, Gastric Lavage, FTA Card.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool and milk must be frozen after collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Accredited
Assay Code See Below
Description This test checks for different species of Mycoplasma. Mycoplasma refers to a genus of bacteria that are the smallest living cells known. They can be parasitic or saprotrophic. Several species are pathogenic in humans, including M. pneumoniae, which is an important cause of atypical pneumonia and other respiratory disorders, and M. genitalium, which is believed to be involved in pelvic inflammatory diseases.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae - M.pneumoniae causes a form of atypical bacterial pneumonia, also referred to as 'walking pneumonia'. Symptoms include cough that may come in violent spasms but produce very little mucus, mild flu-like symptoms such as fever and chills, sore throat, headache, tiredness and malaise. It is spread by contact with droplets from nose and throat of an infected person.

Mycoplasma genitalium - M.genitalium is a small parasitic bacterium that lives on ciliated epithelial cells of the genital tract and is sexually transmitted. In women symptoms such as vaginal itching, burning while urinating, discharge, pain during intercourse may appear. In the long term, this infection is suspected to cause pelvic inflammatory disease and cervicitis. In men it causes urogenital tract disease.

Mycoplasma bovis - M.bovis is a bacteria-like organism that causes persistent, chronic infections in calves and cows. The clinical manifestations of M.bovis include mastitis in cows and arthritis and pneumonia in young animals, genital disorders, abscess, conjunctivitis, otitis, and meningitis. The mechanisms of the pathogenesis of M. bovis are still unknown, but it uses complex strategies to invade the host organism. It adheres to the neutrophils and the macrophages, persisting and multiplying on the surface of these cells.

Pathogens Tested
  • APM-040 : Mycoplasma bovis (This Assay includes the detection of Mycoplasma bovis only.)
  • APM-041 : Mycoplasma Species (This Assay includes the detection of Mycoplasma Species only. This Assay can detect many Mycoplasma species including Mycoplasma agassizii,Mycoplasma anatis, Mycoplasma anseris, Mycoplasma arginini,Mycoplasma arthritidis,Mycoplasma auris, Mycoplasma buccale, Mycoplasma canadense,Mycoplasma cloacale,Mycoplasma collis, Mycoplasma columborale, Mycoplasma cricetuli, Mycoplasma cynos,Mycoplasma falconis,Mycoplasma faucium, Mycoplasma felis, Mycoplasma gateae,Mycoplasma gypis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma hyopharyngis, Mycoplasma hyorhinis,Mycoplasma hyosynoviae, Mycoplasma iguana, Mycoplasma lagogenitalium, Mycoplasma leonicaptivi, Mycoplasma molare, Mycoplasma mustelae, Mycoplasma neophronis,Mycoplasma neurolyticum, Mycoplasma orale, Mycoplasma phocicerebrale, Mycoplasma phocidae, Mycoplasma salivarium, Mycoplasma spumans, Mycoplasma timone, and Mycoplasma zalophi .The assay cannot detect M. pneumoniae, M. gallisepticum and M.pulmonis ).

Method Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
Accredited : Culture, Milk, Swab/Secretion (Respiratory), Tissue (esophagus, trachea, cloaca, eyes, phallus).
Alternatives : Swab / Secretions (Genital), Swab/Secretion (Organ/Abscess)
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Milk must be frozen after collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Assay Code APN-019
Description Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a single-stranded RNA virus of the Paramyxoviridae family that causes a contagious disease in birds. The linear RNA genome comprises just over 15K nucleotides that encode 6 genes. The spherical viral particle is enveloped and has external spikes formed by two proteins, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase.

NDV has been shown to be able to infect over 200 species of birds, but the severity of disease produced varies with both host and strain of virus. The virus can survive for several weeks in warm environments such as in manure or between bird feathers and enters the host by ingestion of contaminated food stuff or contact with contaminated bodily fluids.

NDV strains can be categorised as velogenic (highly virulent), mesogenic (intermediate virulence), or lentogenic (nonvirulent). Velogenic strains produce severe nervous and respiratory signs, spread rapidly, and cause up to 90% mortality. Mesogenic strains cause coughing, affect egg quality and production, and result in up to 10% mortality. Lentogenic strains produce mild signs with negligible mortality.

Method Real-Time RT-PCR.
Sample Type
Swab/Secretion (Respiratory), Stool, Tissue, Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool must be frozen after collection and delivered within 24 hours.
Specimens must be sent in RNA preservative media (except culture). Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code APN-187
Description Nipah virus is an enveloped, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus in the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Henipavirus. Primary reservoir for Nipah virus are fruit bats of the genus Pteropus. Domestic swine are extremely susceptible to infection and act as amplifying host. However, infections have also been reported in dogs, cats, horses and goats. Swine infected with Nipah virus may cause aerosols or transmit the disease by direct contact of their respiratory secretions to other swine. Incubation period in pigs is approximately 7–14 days, but may be as short as four days. Intranasal and oral inoculation of cats with virus experimentally produced disease and incubation periods of 6–8 days have been documented.

Method Real Time RT-PCR
Sample Type
EDTA Blood, CSF, Swab / Secretion (Respiratory), Urine.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Urine sample must be frozen after collection and delivered within 24 hours.
Specimens must be sent in RNA Preservative media. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.
Note Add C0105

Links

Accredited
Assay Code APO-021
Description The genus Orthopoxvirus contains a number of species that can infect animals and humans. Some members of the genus include variola (smallpox) and vaccinia virus (smallpox vaccine), cowpox virus, monkeypox virus and camelpox virus. The camelpox virus causes the disease camel pox which is a highly contagious skin disease in camelids. It causes skin lesions and a generalized infection. Approximately 25% of young camels that become infected die from the disease, while infection in older camels is generally milder. Camel pox is endemic throughout the Middle East, Africa, and Asia. The virus spreads in three ways: by direct contact, indirect contact, and insect vectors. The virus is spread through milk, saliva, ocular secretions, and nasal secretions, and has been shown to remain virulent outside of a host for 4 months. It is believed that camel ticks (Hyalomma dromedarii) can transmit the disease from one camel to another. This theory is supported by increases in Camel pox infections immediately following heavy rains, during which the camel tick population increases greatly.

Method Real-Time PCR
Sample Type
Accredited : EDTA Blood, Tissue (Skin Lesion), Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code APP-101
Description Peste-des-petits-ruminants (PPR) is an acute viral disease of small ruminants characterised by fever, oculonasal discharges, stomatitis, diarrhoea and pneumonia with foul offensive breath. It is caused by a Morbillivirus that belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae. PPR affects mainly sheep and goats and occasionally wild small ruminants. It has been reported on a few occasions in camels, cattle and buffaloes, although their potential role in the circulation of PPR virus (PPRV) is not established.

PPR occurs in Africa except Southern Africa, in the Arabian Peninsula, throughout most of the Near East and Middle East, and in Central and South-East Asia. The clinical disease resembles rinderpest in cattle. It is usually acute and characterised by pyrexia, serous ocular and nasal discharges, erosive lesions on different mucous membranes particularly in the mouth, diarrhoea and pneumonia.

Method Real -Time RT-PCR
Sample Type
Swab / Secretion (Respiratory), Culture, EDTA Blood, Tissue.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C and delivered within 24 hours. It is required to add RNA preservative media to swabs / secretion and tissue only.
Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Accredited
Assay Code APC-005
Description Beak and feather disease virus or Circovirus is a small, non-enveloped circular single-stranded DNA virus of the Circoviridae family. The virus causes beak and feather disease (PBFD) in avian species specifically psittacine birds such as Cockatoos, Macaws, African grey parrots and Ringnecked parakeets. Beak and feather disease virus typically targets actively growing cells like beak, feather, and the cells of the immune system resulting in secondary bacterial, fungal or parasitic infections. The viral particles remain viable in the environment for months.

Transmission of the virus from one individual to another is through direct contact, inhalation of feather dust or ingestion of infected faecal material. Clinical signs of the disease include irreversible loss of feathers, shedding of developing feathers, development of abnormal beak or feathers, and lesions on the beak and nails.

There is no known treatment and the only way to control the disease is through hygiene, strict isolation or culling of all diseased birds. Early diagnosis is necessary to control disease progression in infected birds and avoid its spread amongst uninfected ones.

Method Real -Time PCR
Sample Type
Accredited : EDTA Blood, Tissue, Culture.
Alternatives : Feather.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code APR-192
Description Rabies is a zoonotic disease that can affect all mammals. It is caused by Rabies lyssavirus, which is a neurotropic virus and is the type species of the Lyssavirus genus of the Rhabdoviridae family. These viruses are enveloped and have a single stranded negative-sense RNA genome.

Rabies virus is primarily transmitted through the saliva of an infected animal. Saliva becomes infectious a few days prior to the onset of clinical signs. Infection occurs primarily via bite wounds, or infected saliva entering an open cut or wound or mucus membrane, such as those in the mouth, nasal cavity or eyes. Occasional, albeit rare, transmission by inhalation of infected aerosol has been described. The incubation period varies from a few days to 6 months. Clinical observations may only lead to a suspicion of rabies because signs of the disease are not pathognomonic and may vary greatly from one animal to another. The only way to undertake a reliable diagnosis is to identify the virus using laboratory tests.

The disease has high economic consequences due to the losses in livestock and the cost of the implementation of preventive and control measures in animals.

Method Real-Time RT-PCR
Sample Type
Saliva, Tissue (brain).
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C and delivered within 24 hours of collection.Please contact MBG Lab in advance for correct package and transport requirements.
Specimens must be sent in RNA preservative media. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.
Note C0105

Links

Validated
Assay Code APV-195
Description SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, belongs to the genus Betacoronavirus and was firstly identified in humans in January 2020. It is primarily transmitted through droplets released when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks in close vicinity to other individuals. People can also become infected by touching surfaces that have been contaminated with the droplets of infected persons. The time from exposure to onset of symptoms is typically around five days but may range from two to 14 days.

Common symptoms include fever, cough, fatigue, shortness of breath, and loss of sense of smell and taste. Complications may include pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure, septic shock, and blood clots.

Method Real -Time RT-PCR
Sample Type
Swab / Secretion (Respiratory), Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C and within 24 hours of collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT. Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.

Links

Accredited
Assay Code See Below
Description Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi var. equi) is the bacterium which causes the highly contagious disease strangles (also known as "distemper"). Strangles commonly affects young horses (weanlings and yearlings), but horses of any age can be infected. Following natural infection, a carrier state of variable duration may develop and intermittent shedding of the pathogen may occur. The organism is transmitted by direct contact with infected horses or sub-clinical shedders, or indirectly by contact with: water troughs, hoses, feed bunks, pastures, stalls, trailers, tack, grooming equipment, nose wipe cloths or sponges, attendants' hands and clothing, or insects contaminated with nasal discharge or pus draining from lymph nodes of infected horses. Streptococcus equi has demonstrated environmental survivability particularly in water sources and when protected from exposure to direct sunlight and disinfectants, and can be a source of infection for new additions to the herd.

Vaccination against S. equi equi is recommended on premises where strangles is a persistent endemic problem or for horses that are expected to be at high risk of exposure. S. equi equi and S. equi zooepidemicus are antigenically similar organisms. However, exposure to, or vaccination against, one does not confer reliable immunity to the other.

Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is a B-hemolytic, Lancefield group C streptococcal bacterium. S. zooepidemicus is considered an opportunistic commensal in horses, but it may also cause infections in other domestic animals such as cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs, and cats. S. equi zooepidemicus is antigenically similar to S. equi equi and shares >98% DNA sequence homology with S. equi equi which causes strangles, a highly contagious and serious disease in horses.

Pathogens Tested
  • APS-043 : Streptococcus equi subspecies equi
    (This assay includes the detection of Streptococcus equi subspecies equi and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus)
  • APB-044 :Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus
    (This assay includes the detection of Streptococcus equi subspecies equi and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus)
  • APS-042 :Streptococcus equi subspecies equi - Animal Health Trust UK Licenced
    (This assay includes the detection of Streptococcus equi subspecies equi)

Method Real-Time PCR
Sample Type
Guttural pouch flush, Swab/Secretion (Respiratory), Fluid from abscess, Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

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Accredited
Assay Code APT-045
Description Taylorella equigenitalis causes contagious equine metritis (CEM), which is an inflammatory disease of the proximal and distal reproductive tract of the mare and usually results in temporary infertility. OIE has listed CEM as a notifiable disease. Clinical signs include endometritis, cervicitis and vaginitis of variable severity and a slight to copious mucopurulent vaginal discharge. Direct venereal contact during natural mating presents the highest risk for the transmission of T. equigenitalis from a contaminated stallion or an infected mare. Direct venereal transmission can also take place by artificial insemination using infective raw, chilled and possibly frozen semen. Indirectly, infection may be acquired through fomite transmission, manual contamination, inadequate observance of appropriate biosecurity measures at the time of breeding and at semen collection centres. Stallions can become asymptomatic carriers of T. equigenitalis. The principal sites of colonisation by the bacterium are the urogenital membranes (urethral fossa, urethral sinus, terminal urethra and penile sheath). The sites of persistence of T. equigenitalis in the majority of carrier mares are the clitoral sinuses and fossa and infrequently the uterus. Foals born of carrier mares may also become carriers. The organism can infect equid species other than horses, e.g. donkeys.

Taylorella asinigenitalis is a microaerophilic, non-motile, coccobacillus, Gram-negative bacterium: It is closely related to Taylorella equigenitalis and mainly found in donkeys. It does not cause apparent disease in mares.

Pathogens TestedThis assay can detect and differentiate between Taylorella equigenitalis and Taylorella asinigenitalis.

Method Real-Time PCR
Sample Type
Accredited : Culture.
Alternatives : Swab/Secretions (Genital).
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

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Accredited
Assay Code APT-049
Description Trypanosoma evansi and T. brucei are flagellated protozoan parasites that live in the blood, lymph and various tissues of their vertebrate hosts. Trypanosoma evansi causes a trypanosomosis known as "surra". It has a wide host range. In some countries incidence of surra increases significantly during the rainy season when biting fly populations have greatly increased. Surra affects mainly camels and horses but buffaloes and cattle are also affected. Other species that develop severe disease include donkeys, mules, deer, llamas, dogs, cats, cattle and buffalo. Sheep, goats, pigs and elephants may occasionally develop mild or chronic disease.T. evansi has a wide distribution in Asia, North Africa (extending into tsetse areas with T. brucei infections) and Central and South America.

T. evansi is transmitted from animal to animal by mechanical vectors such as hematophagous flies, including Tabanus spp. and Musca spp., as well as Lyperosia, Stomoxys and Atylotus genera. Tabanids (horse flies) are the most significant vectors. Infection occurs through blood from infected animals and occasionally through meat and milk. T. evansi frequently localizes extravascularly in tissues including the central nervous system. The disease is characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and parasitaemia. Abortions have been reported in buffaloes and camels.

Pathogens TestedThis assay is used for the detection of both Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma brucei, however, it cannot differentiate between the two subtypes.

Method Real-Time PCR
Sample Type
Accredited : EDTA blood, Culture.
Alternatives : Tissue.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

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Accredited
Assay Code APW-022
Description West Nile virus (WNV) is a zoonotic mosquito-transmitted arbovirus belonging to the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. It is a positive-sense, ssRNA virus and causes West Nile fever, that affects birds, humans and horses causing inapparent infection, mild febrile illness, meningitis, encephalitis, or death. The arbovirus is maintained in nature by cycling through birds and mosquitoes.WNV also causes sporadic disease in other species including squirrels, chipmunks, bats, dogs, cats, white-tailed deer, reindeer, sheep, alpacas, alligators and harbour seals. Dromedary camel has also been implicated as a possible source for the viral infection.

For many avian species, WNV infection causes no overt signs while other birds, such as American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata), often succumb to fatal systemic illness. Most species of birds can become infected with WNV, however, the clinical outcome of infection is variable. Some species appear resistant while others such as American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata) suffer fatal neurologic disease.

Clinical signs of WNV infection in horses arise from viral-induced encephalitis or encephalomyelitis. Affected horses frequently demonstrate mild to severe ataxia. Some horses exhibit weakness, muscle fasciculation, and cranial nerve deficits.

Brain and spinal cord are the preferred tissues for virus isolation from horses. Bird tissues generally contain higher concentrations of virus than equine tissues. In birds, kidney, heart, brain, liver or intestine can yield virus isolates.

Method Real-Time RT-PCR.
Sample Type
Accredited : Tissue (brain, kidney, heart, liver, intestine), Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Tissue must be sent in RNA preservative media.
Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

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Molecular Biology & Genetics Laboratory

Pathogen Identification


Molecular based methods like PCR, Real-Time PCR and more recently next generation sequencing (NGS) have revolutionized the field of veterinary diagnostics. At MBG Lab, we offer detection of pathogenic viruses, bacteria and parasites using molecular methods, which are fast and highly sensitive to detect microbial pathogens in various specimens. MBG lab is an ISO 17025 accredited facility and benefits from an isolated containment level 3 facility for processing highly (level 3) contagious pathogens.


All Bacteria Virus Fungi Parasite


Accredited
Assay Code See Below
Description African horse sickness (AHS) virus is a double stranded RNA virus of the family Reoviridae and causes African horse sickness in horses and related species such as mules, donkeys, and zebras. Horses are most severely affected by the disease. AHS is endemic in the central tropical regions of Africa and has occasionally extended to Egypt, the Middle East and the southern Arabian Peninsula.

The disease spreads mainly by the bite of insects such as midges (Culicoides) but direct horse to horse transmission does not occur. The virus can only survive through continuous cycles of transmission between its hosts-horses and insects. It does not survive in the environment outside of the host. Clinical signs are typically seen five to seven days after infection in the form of fever, redness of the inside surface of the eyelids. The disease progresses to one of the following forms: pulmonary form, cardiac form or mixed form.

There are nine distinct serotypes of AHSV (AHSV-1 to AHSV-9) . Any of the strains can cause disease with severity ranging from a mild fever to sudden death. The serotypes can be distinguished in serum neutralisation tests by the specificity of their reactions with neutralising antibodies. Molecular methods for determination of AHSV serotypes have been developed based on a set of nine individual ‘typing’ assays to detect and identify Seg-2 of each AHSV serotype.

Pathogens Tested
  • APA-001 : African horse sickness virus
  • APA-182 : African horse sickness virus Serotyping

Method Real -Time RT-PCR
Sample Type
EDTA Blood, Tissue (Spleen, Lung, Lymph nodes) , Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C and delivered within 24h of collection
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code See Below
Description Aspergillus spp. has been found worldwide in almost all domestic and wild animals, ranging from insects and corals to NHP. Aspergillosis is a common infection in birds, particularly pet parrots, penguins, captive raptors, mallards and other ducks, turkeys, and Japanese quail, in which it causes pulmonary and air sac infection. Aspergillosis has also been described in cats and dogs in which it affects only the nasal passages. In large animals, Aspergillus infection is assumed to be rare but has been reported with increasing frequency. It can lead to various diseases like mycotic abortion and gland infection in cows as well as guttural pouch involvement in horses. In marine mammals, airways are usually initially affected leading to pneumonia, but other organs including the brain may also be infected following fatal dissemination. The most frequently identified pathogens are Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus, ubiquitous organisms capable of living under extensive environmental stress.

Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic pathogen and the primary cause of invasive aspergillosis. Triazole antifungals are used to treat aspergillosis. However, triazole-resistant A. fumigatus infections are increasingly reported worldwide and are associated with increased treatment failure and mortality. This fungus can acquire resistance to azole antifungals due to mutations in the azole target (Cyp51A). Cyp51A mutations typical for environmental azole resistance acquisition (for example, TR34/L98H) have been reported in many cases. These mutations can also be found in isolates recovered from patients.

Pathogens Tested
  • APA-098 : Aspergillus fumigatus/ terreus/ flavus
  • APA-189 : Azole-resistance profiling of Cyp51A gene

Method Aspergillus fumigatus / terreus / flavus by Multi Real-Time PCR (This assay includes the detection and differentiation of Aspergillus fumigatus / terreus / flavus)
Azole-resistance profiling of Cyp51A gene (This assay detects selected mutations in the Cyp51A gene related to azole-resistance, by PCR and sequencing).
Sample Type
Culture, EDTA Blood, Swab / Secretion (Respiratory), Tissue.
Transport Condition Sample should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 10 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 7 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code APA-002
Description The adenoviruses are a group of non-enveloped, icosahedral DNA viruses. Adenovirus infections are ubiquitous in commercially farmed birds, and probably in all avian species.

The avian adenoviruses can be divided into three groups. Group I, or conventional adenoviruses, share a common group antigen. Group II adenoviruses include the viruses of turkey haemorrhagic enteritis (THE), marble spleen disease (MSD) and group II splenomegaly of chickens. These viruses also share a common antigen. Group III viruses, the egg drop syndrome (EDS) viruses, are widely distributed in waterfowl but can easily infect chickens, resulting in the production of abnormal eggshells. While many infections are subclinical and appear to be of little economic or welfare importance, significant outbreaks of disease associated with adenovirus do occur.

Method PCR and gel electrophoresis
Sample Type
Faeces, Tissue (trachea, bursa, nasal mucosa, pharynx, lungs, kidney), Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C and delivered within 24h of collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

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Accredited
Assay Code APB-003
Description Bluetongue (BT) is an infectious, non -contagious, vector-borne viral disease that affects wild and domestic ruminants such as sheep, goats, cattle, buffaloes, deer, most species of African antelope and various other vertebrate hosts. It is transmitted by midges, small insects, of the genus Culicoides. In sheep,Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes an acute disease with high morbidity and mortality. Infection of cattle with BTV does not usually result in clinical signs, with the exception of BTV 8 infection in Europe. Cattle are particularly significant in the epidemiology of the disease due to the prolonged viraemia in the absence of clinical disease. Clinical signs of BT include fever, hyperaemia and congestion, swelling of the face and tongue and cyanosis of the tongue. However in mild cases of the disease, a transitory hyperaemia and slight ocular and nasal discharge may be observed.

Method Real-Time RT-PCR
Sample Type
Accredited : EDTA Blood.
Alternatives : Culture, Tissue.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C and delivered within 24h of collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code APB-193
Description Bornavirus is a non-enveloped negative strand ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus. Because it uniquely replicates in the cell nucleus, it has been classified in its own family, Bornaviridae. In 2008, ABV was identified as the causative agent of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD) in psittacines, but the primary reservoir for ABV appears to be waterfowl. 

The epidemiology of avian bornavirus infections is poorly characterized, including the natural reservoir(s) of infection and routes of virus transmission. The incubation period in experimentally infected birds ranges from 20 to 200 days after inoculation. Bornavirus RNA can be detected in the feces and cloacal and crop contents of naturally infected birds

Method Real -Time RT-PCR.
Sample Type
EDTA Blood, Tissue (Brain), Feather(Plucked from breast).
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Tissue must be sent in RNA preservative media.
It is not required to add RNA preservative media to blood and feather. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Accredited
Assay Code APB-004
Description Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is a single stranded RNA virus and belongs to the genus Pestivirus, family Flaviviridae. It causes Bovine virus diarrhea which is a contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants and is closely related to Classical swine fever (CSF) which is also caused by a pestivirus. BVD is a notifiable disease and eradication programs are administered in many countries worldwide.

BVDV occurs in two forms: noncytopathogenic and cytopathogenic. There are two antigenically distinct genotypes (types 1 and 2), and virus isolates within these groups exhibit considerable biological and antigenic diversity. BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 can be distinguished by genetic analyses and have subtle immunological differences. The genome of BVDV-1 is 12.57 kb long while that of the BVDV-2 is 12.26 kb long.

BVDV remains infective only for short periods outside of the host and is very susceptible to detergents, light, temperature changes and other environmental conditions. It is mainly transmitted by close contact with persistently infected or acutely infected cattle/sheep via the oral or nasal routes, although bulls also shed the virus in semen. During acute infections, a brief viraemia may be detectable and nasal shedding of virus may occur. Acutely infected animals shed the virus for about 2 weeks, whereas persistently infected animals shed in all bodily secretions for life, thus acting as viral reservoirs.

Method Real-Time RT- PCR.
Sample Type
Accredited : Tissue (lung, spleen), Milk, Culture.
Alternatives : EDTA Blood, Semen, Urine, Stool, Swab/Secretion (Respiratory), Swab/Secretion (Rectal).
Transport Condition Swabs / secretion and tissue should be transported at 4°C. Urine, milk, stool and semen samples must be frozen after collection and delivered within 24 hours.
It is required to add RNA preservative media to swabs / secretion and tissue only. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Accredited
Assay Code See Below
Description Brucellosis is a contagious disease of livestock caused by several species of the genus Brucella, mainly Brucella abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis. Infection with Brucella in cattle is usually caused by B. abortus, less frequently by B. melitensis, and occasionally by B. suis. Brucella melitensis is the main causative agent of infection with Brucella in sheep and goats. Infection with Brucella in pigs is due to B. suis biovars 1-3, but the disease caused by biovar 2 differs in its host range, its limited geographical distribution, and its pathogenicity. Clinically, infection with Brucella in animals is characterized by one or more of the following signs: abortion, retained placenta, orchitis, epididymitis and, rarely, arthritis, with excretion of the organisms in uterine discharges and in milk. Diagnosis depends on the isolation of Brucella from abortion material, udder secretions or from tissues removed at post-mortem.

Pathogens Tested
  • APB-023 : Brucella abortus (This Assay includes the detection of Brucella species and Brucella abortus)
  • APB-024 : Brucella melitensis (This Assay includes the detection of Brucella species and Brucella melitensis)
  • APB-025 : Brucella Species (This Assay includes the detection of Brucella species only. This Assay can detect many Brucella species including B.abortus, B.melitensis, B.suis and B. canis)

Method Real-Time PCR
Sample Type
Accredited : Tissue (fetal, reticulo-endothelial system), EDTA Blood, Milk, Culture.
Alternatives : Swab / Secretions (Genital).
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Milk must be frozen after collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code See Below
Description Burkholderia mallei is a gram negative bipolar aerobic bacterium belonging to the genus Burkholderia. It causes a contagious and fatal disease in horses, donkeys, and mules which is called Glanders. According to the location of the initial infection, the disease presents itself in four different forms; nasal, pulmonary, cutaneous and asymptomatic carrier. The nasal and pulmonary forms tend to be more acute while the cutaneous form is a chronic process. Inflammatory nodules and ulcers develop in the nasal passages and give rise to a sticky yellow discharge. Stellate scarring follows upon healing of the ulcers. The formation of nodular abscesses in the lungs is accompanied by progressive debility, coughing and may also be accompanied by diarrhoea. In the cutaneous form (farcy), the lymph vessels are enlarged; nodular abscesses form along their course, which then ulcerate and discharge yellow pus. Nodules are regularly found in the liver and spleen, leading to wasting and death.Control of glanders requires early detection and diagnostic testing of suspected clinical cases, screening of apparently normal equids, and elimination of positive cases.

Burkholderia pseudomallei infects animals and causes the disease melioidosis. B. pseudomallei is an opportunistic pathogen and affects many animal species; infection generally results from grazing on contaminated soil or drinking contaminated water. Infected animals can excrete the organism in saliva, pus, urine, and feces. Severe disease occurs in sheep and goats but cattle, dogs, cats, horses, buffalo, rodents, camels, nonhuman primates, some species of birds, and tropical fish, also get infected. The incubation period for animals is variable ranging from a few days to many years. Some abscesses are carried asymptotically. The signs of melioidosis in animals vary depending on species, but generally include depression, fever, weight loss, respiratory signs (heavy breathing, sneezing), lameness and swelling of the joints, and potentially death. Any animals showing signs of illness should be promptly isolated.

Pathogens Tested
  • APB-026 : Burkholderia mallei.
  • APB-027 : Burkholderia pseudomallei.

Method Real-Time PCR
Sample Type
Swab/Secretion (Respiratory), Tissue ( ulcers, trachea, larynx, lymph nodes, lesions), Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Accredited
Assay Code See Below
Description Campylobacteriosis is a bacterial disease caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. These bacteria do not normally cause clinical disease in adult animals except for sporadic cases of abortion in ruminants and very rare cases of hepatitis in ostriches. However, it can be an important source of human food-borne disease through the faecal contamination of meat (especially poultry meat) during processing. The organism can be isolated from faeces, rectal swabs, or caecal contents of mammals (farm animals, cats, and dogs) and birds.

Pathogens Tested
  • APC-029 : Campylobacter coli
  • APC-028 : Campylobacter jejuni

Method Real -Time PCR
Sample Type
Accredited : Culture.
Alternatives : Stool, Swab/Secretion (Rectal), Enriched meat.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool must be frozen after collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code APC-030
Description Mycoplasma haemolamae, a member of the hemoplasmas within the family Mycoplasmataceae, is a small bacteria, generally < 1 micron (usually ~ 0.4 and 0.6 um) in diameter, lacking a cell wall. It is a hemotropic mycoplasma with tropism for the red blood cells (RBC) of llamas, alpacas, and guanacos. Organisms from the two genera  Hemobartonella  and Eperythrozoon  have been reclassified as hemotrophic Mycoplasma spp. (hemoplasmas). Different species of these hemotrophic organisms infect many vertebrates, including pigs, sheep, cattle, dogs, and cats. In camelids and other nonsplenectomized animals, hemotrophic Mycoplasmas may be an incidental finding on blood smear evaluation, but in ill or immunocompromised animals, they may cause mild to severe anemia.

The typical mode of transmission of  M. haemolamae in the llama and alpaca is not known. However, studies in swine, dogs, and cats support blood sucking or biting insects, including lice, fleas, and ticks, as vectors of the hemotrophic Mycoplasma spp. Oral uptake of blood components and indirect transmission via contact with blood contaminated syringes or surgical instruments following tattooing, tail docking, or castration are additional methods of transmission of Mycoplasma spp. in swine. Mycoplasma haemolamae has the potential to impact the camelid industry by creating chronically infected individuals that show no signs of disease, or animals with chronic, insidious disease with signs of disease including weight loss and inappetance.

Method Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
EDTA Blood, Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code APC-031
Description Chlamydia and chlamydophila are two genera belonging to the family Chlamydiaceae. Avian chlamydiosis (caused by Chlamydophila psittaci) was originally termed psittacosis, or parrot fever, as the disease was originally recognised in psittacine birds. Also, Chalmydial disease from domestic poultry and wild birds other than psittacine birds was previously called ornithosis. These diseases are now considered all similar and referred to as avian chlamydiosis.

Chlamydiae are known to infect most species of domestic poultry, pet birds and wild birds causing varying degrees of infection. Chlamydial infections have been identified in over 150 species of wild birds. Persistently infected carrier birds are known to be a source of chlamydiosis in the pet bird industry. In poultry, the disease varies from one producing high morbidity and mortality to one that is asymptomatic. Typical clinical signs with a strain of high virulence include pneumoenteritis with respiratory signs, mucopurulent ocular or nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, diarrhoea, polyuria and dullness. Strains of low virulence produce clinical signs that are similar but less severe and less extensive. Asymptomatic infections can occur with strains of both low and high virulence.

Infected birds shed chlamydiae in both the respiratory excretions and in faeces. A susceptible bird can become infected through inhalation of airborne contaminated material or through ingestion of contaminated feeds.

Method Real -Time PCR.
Sample Type
Stool, Swab / Secretion (Rectal), Swab / Secretion (Respiratory), Swab/ Secretion (Conjunctival), Tissue, Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool must be frozen after collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code APC-032
Description The C. perfringens species is a very heterogeneous group of organisms with respect to their metabolic byproducts, toxins and pathogenic potential. C. perfringens is classified into five toxigenic types (A through E), based on their ability to produce any of the four major lethal toxins alpha, beta, epsilon and iota. However, there is a considerable lack of knowledge regarding the distribution of C. perfringens types, their pathogenesis, diagnosis and the incidence of diseases caused by this organism.

Type A is the most common of all the C. perfringens types and the most variable in toxigenic properties. Its role in the pathogenesis of diseases is not fully understood. Type A can be subdivided into two varieties based on its toxigenic behaviour; the "classical" variety, characterized mainly by alphatoxin production and is associated with gas gangrene, traumatic infections, avian necrotic enteritis and the normal intestinal tract, and the enterotoxigenic variety, characterized by enterotoxin production and capable of causing human enteritis.

Type B produces both beta- and epsilon-toxins, but beta-toxin is usually the principal component.

The principal lethal toxin in all varieties of C. perfringens type C is beta-toxin. The enterotoxigenic C. perfringens appears to originate from animals since most of the sources incriminated in food poisoning outbreaks have been meats, particularly beef and poultry.

Type D is the best known pathogenic C. perfringens type and widely regarded as the causative organism of fatal enterotoxemia of sheep or "overeating disease". It produces epsilon-toxin which is almost exclusively responsible for the host pathology and subsequent death.
This assay can detect alpha, beta-2, epsilon, iota and enterotoxin.

Method Multi Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
Stool, Swab / Secretion (Rectal), Intestinal Content, Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool must be frozen after collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code APC-188
Description Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is a gram-positive, facultative intracellular pathogen and the etiologic agent of the disease known as caseous lymphadenitis (CL). CL mainly affects small ruminants, such as goats and sheep. It also causes ulcerative lymphangitis, external subcutaneous abscesses, and internal infection in horses. Infection has also been reported in cattle, buffalo and camelids. In camels, C. pseudotuberculosis affects almost 10% of the population in a herd.
Although C. pseudotuberculosis causes major health and productivity problems for livestock, little is known about the molecular basis of its pathogenicity.

Method Real -Time PCR.
Sample Type
Culture, Milk, EDTA Blood, Tissue, Swab / Secretion (Organ/Abscess).
Transport Condition Sample should be transported at 4°C. Milk must be frozen after collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Accredited
Assay Code APC-033
Description Coxiella burnetii is a gram negative cocco bacillus that causes Q-fever disease in animals. It belongs to a group of organisms known as Rickettsia. The infection has been found in various wild and domestic animals and birds and in some arthropods, such as ticks. The species most commonly infected are cattle, sheep and goats. Infections with Coxiella burnetii include placentitis (inflammation of the placenta) and subsequent abortion in cattle, sheep and goats.

Outside the animal the bacteria assumes a small, dense, long lasting spore-like form which is able to resist heat and drying. It can then contaminate dust and spread by wind for long distances. It is so highly infectious that a single inhaled organism can cause clinical illness in an animal or person. Outbreaks typically occur following a birth or abortion where the environment becomes contaminated with birth fluids. Q-fever can also be spread by ticks which pass the bacteria from an infected to a susceptible animal, and whose feces contain the bacteria thus also contaminating the environment. The organism may be present in the reproductive fluids or raw milk from infected animals. Animal vaccination has been used in areas where the infections are common. More generally, sanitary measures to remove afterbirth and birth fluids, and to clean and disinfect areas where animals have given birth can prevent the disease from spreading.

Q-fever is listed in the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code and Member Countries and Territories are obligated to report occurrences of the disease to the OIE. This assay is used for the detection of both C. burnetii and C. symbiont, however, it cannot differentiate between the two subtypes.

Method Real -Time PCR
Sample Type
Accredited : Culture, EDTA Blood, Milk, Tissue (Placental).
Alternatives : Swab / Secretion (Genital).
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Milk must be frozen after collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Accredited
Assay Code APE-006
Description Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is a single stranded positive sense RNA genome classified in the genus, Arterivirus, family Arteriviridae. Equine viral arteritis (EVA) is a reportable, highly contagious disease associated with sporadic outbreaks of acute respiratory disease and abortion in horses. Infection can spread between horses at mating, by artificial insemination with contaminated semen, by contact with aborted foetuses, or by direct contact with droplets from the respiratory tract, i.e. through coughing and snorting.

EAV primarily infects macrophages and vessel endothelium throughout a horse's body. The initial infection is followed by viral dissemination via the bloodstream, resulting in viremia. Clinical signs first appear two to 13 (average seven) days after infection, and a fever may continue for two to nine days. Acutely infected horses shed the virus in nasal secretions for up to 16 days. EVA is a notifiable disease of horses. The diseases' greatest economic impact is on the horse-breeding industry.

Method Real -Time RT-PCR.
Sample Type
Accredited : Swab / Secretion (Respiratory), Swab / Secretion (Conjunctival), Culture.
Alternatives : Blood (buffy coat), Semen, Urine, Tissue.
Transport Condition Swabs / secretion and tissue should be transported at 4°C. Urine and semen samples must be frozen after collection and delivered within 24 hours. It is required to add RNA preservative media to swabs / secretion and tissue only. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Accredited
Assay Code See Below
Description Equine herpes virus1 (EHV1) and Equine herpes virus4 (EHV4) are double stranded DNA viruses of the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, genus Varicellovirus.They are clinically and pathologically indistinguishable and are the primary pathogens causing respiratory tract disease in young horses from weanling to 2 years of age. EHV1 and EHV4 are major causes of abortion and respiratory disease in horses, respectively, whereas EHV1 also causes occasional neurological defects in horses. The virus can spread through the air, contaminated equipment, clothing and hands. Clinical signs are most intense and virus shedding most abundant during the first few days of infection. The time between an initial EHV1 infection of the respiratory tract and the onset of neurological signs is about 8-12 days. The neurological symptoms appear suddenly and reach peak intensity within 48 hours.

EHV4 causes rhinopneumonitis in horses and respiratory infection in foals, leaving a lifelong latent infection in affected animals. These horses are usually the source for new infection in foals over two months old, weanlings, and yearlings. Symptoms include fever, loss of appetite, and nasal discharge. Most infected animals recover in one to three weeks, but death can occur in environments with overcrowding and other stress factors. EHV4 rarely causes abortion in infected pregnant mares unlike its EHV1 counterpart.

Pathogens Tested
  • APE-007 : Equine herpes virus 1
  • APE-099 : Equine herpes virus 4

Method Real -Time PCR
Sample Type
Swab / Secretion (Respiratory), Tissue (Fetal and placental), Culture, EDTA Blood.
Transport Condition Sample should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code APE-008
Description Equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV)is a retrovirus (ssRNA) belonging to the lentivirus subfamily of Retroviridae. Equine infectious anaemia (EIA) occurs world-wide. The infection, formerly known as swamp fever, is limited to equids. The disease is characterised by recurrent febrile episodes, thrombocytopenia, anaemia, rapid loss of weight and oedema of the lower parts of the body. The incubation period is normally 1-3 weeks, but may be as long as 3 months. In acute cases, lymph nodes, spleen and liver are hyperaemic and enlarged. Once a horse is infected with EIAV, its blood remains infectious for the remainder of its life. This means that the horse is a viraemic carrier and can potentially transmit the infection to other horses. Transmission occurs by transfer of blood from an infected horse. EIAV is not considered a risk for human health.

Method Real-Time RT-PCR.
Sample Type
EDTA Blood, Tissue, Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. All samples must be delivered within 24 h of collection.
Tissue must be sent in RNA Preservative media. It is not required to add RNA preservative media to blood and culture. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Accredited
Assay Code APE-046
Description Theileria equi (T. equi) and Babesia caballi (B. caballi) are single celled parasitic protozoans closely related to plasmodium and cause equine piroplasmosis. It does not survive outside its hosts and can only be transmitted through a tick vector, affecting all equine species, such as horses, mules, donkeys and zebras. Infected animals may remain carriers of these blood parasites for long periods and act as sources of infection for other ticks. The disease primarily occurs throughout the tropics and subtropics. The protozoa invades the red blood cells of infected animals, leading to disease.
The clinical signs of equine piroplasmosis are often nonspecific, and the disease can easily be confused with other similar hemolytic conditions presenting fever, anemia and jaundice. The disease is not directly contagious. Rather it is transferred by blood from an infected animal to a susceptible animal or insect. Documented case fatality rates vary from 10-50%. Most animals in endemic areas survive infection.
Equine piroplasmosis is a "reportable disease" under the Health of Animals Act. Equine piroplasmosis can occur in per-acute, acute, sub-acute and chronic forms. This assay is used for the detection of both Theileria equi and Babesia caballi, however, it cannot be used to differentiate between the two subtypes.

Method Real- Time PCR
Sample Type
Accredited : EDTA blood.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Accredited
Assay Code APF-009
Description Foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus is single stranded positive sense RNA virus of the family Picornaviridae. It causes a severe, highly contagious viral disease of livestock that has a significant economic impact. The disease affects cattle, swine, sheep, goats and other cloven-hoofed ruminants. FMD is characterized by fever and blister-like sores on the tongue and lips, in the mouth, on the teats and between the hooves. The virus is found in excretions and secretions of infected animals and infection spreads to other animals via the respiratory or oral routes .
The incubation period of the disease is 2-14 days.The virus may be present in milk and semen for up to 4 days before the animal shows clinical signs of disease. The severity of clinical signs will depend on the strain of virus, the exposure dose, the age and species of animal and the host immunity
There are seven strains of the FMD virus (A, O, C, SAT1, SAT2, SAT3, and Asia1) which are endemic in different countries worldwide. Morbidity can reach 100% in susceptible populations. Mortality is generally low in adult animals (1-5%), but higher in young calves, lambs and piglets (20% or higher).

Method Real-Time RT-PCR
Sample Type
Accredited : EDTA Blood, Tissue, Secretions, Culture.
Alternatives : Serum.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. All samples must be delivered within 24 h of collection.
Tissue and secretions must be sent in RNA Preservative media. It is not required to add RNA preservative media to blood, serum and culture. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Research Use Only
Assay Code APH-047
Description Gastric or cutaneous habronemosis caused by Habronema microstoma Creplin, 1849 and Habronema muscae Carter, 1865 is a parasitic disease of equids transmitted by muscid flies. There is a paucity of information on the epidemiology of this disease, which is mainly due to limitations with diagnosis in the live animal and with the identification of the parasites in the intermediate hosts.

Method PCR and gel electrophoresis.
Sample Type
Stool, Flies.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool must be frozen after collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Research Use Only
Assay Code APH-048
Description Gastric or cutaneous habronemosis caused by Habronema microstoma Creplin, 1849 and Habronema muscae Carter, 1865 is a parasitic disease of equids transmitted by muscid flies. There is a paucity of information on the epidemiology of this disease, which is mainly due to limitations with diagnosis in the live animal and with the identification of the parasites in the intermediate hosts.

Method PCR and gel electrophoresis
Sample Type
Stool, Flies.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool must be frozen after collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code APH-123
Description Histoplasma capsulatum is an ascomycetous fungus and belongs to the fungal family Ajellomycetaceae. It causes Histoplasmosis which is a type of lung infection caused by inhaling the fungal spores of Histoplasma capsulatum . Histoplasma capsulatum is dimorphic and switches from a mould-like (filamentous) growth form in the natural habitat to a small budding yeast form in the warm-blooded animal host. Histoplasma capsulatum appears to be strongly associated with the droppings of certain bird species as well as bats. A mixture of these droppings and certain soil types is particularly conducive to proliferation. In highly endemic areas there is a strong association with soil under and around chicken houses, and with areas where soil or vegetation has become heavily contaminated with faecal material deposited by flocking birds such as starlings and blackbirds.

Method Real -Time PCR
Sample Type
Culture, EDTA blood, Swab / Secretion (Respiratory), Swab / Secretion (Organ/Abscess).
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code API-011
Description Avian Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a positive sense, single-stranded RNA virus of the Coronaviridae Family. This virus causes acute respiratory disease in chickens. This family of viruses has an exceptionally large genome of up to 31Kbp in length.
Upon infection with IBV, the virion binds to the host cell via cell surface molecules. The virus is then introduced to the cell cytoplasm either by fusion or by receptor mediated endocytosis. They multiply in the host cell and then exocytosed to be able to infect new host cells.
IBV infection in chickens presents with respiratory distress which can lead to a decrease in egg production or quality. The virus is spread quickly between individuals leading to a morbidity rate of 100% in bird populations that have not been vaccinated.

Method Real-Time RT-PCR.
Sample Type
Tissue, Organ swab (2 swabs), Respiratory swab (2 swabs), Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C and must be delivered within 24 h of collection.
Tissue and swabs must be sent in RNA Preservative media. It is not required to add RNA preservative media to culture. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code API-010
Description Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is a double stranded RNA virus that has a bi-segmented genome and belongs to the genus Avibirnavirus of family Birnaviridae. The two segments, A and B, are enclosed within a nonenveloped icosahedral capsid. IBD is a highly contagious disease of young chickens caused by infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), characterized by immunosuppression and mortality generally at 3 to 6 weeks of age. The disease is also called as Gumboro disease since it was first discovered in Gumboro, Delaware in 1962.
There are two distinct serotypes of the virus, but only serotype 1 viruses cause disease in poultry.
It is economically important to the poultry industry worldwide due to increased susceptibility to other diseases and negative interference with effective vaccination. In recent years, very virulent strains of IBDV (vvIBDV), causing severe mortality in chicken, have emerged in Europe, Latin America, South-East Asia, Africa and the Middle East.

Method Real -Time RT- PCR.
Sample Type
EDTA blood, Tissue, FTA card, Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C and must be delivered within 24 h of collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Accredited
Assay Code See Below
Description There are three types of influenza viruses: A, B, and C. Influenza A viruses are members of the family Orthomyxoviridae and are further classified by subtype on the basis of the two main surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA).

Birds usually get affected by Type A flu virus, also called as Avian Influenza (AI) virus which constantly evolves by mutation and re-assortment and is generally responsible for the large flu epidemics. The AI virus affects several species of food producing birds (chickens, turkeys, quails, guinea fowl, etc.), as well as pet birds and wild birds. Occasionally mammals may contract avian influenza. There are many AI virus strains, which are usually classified into two categories according to the severity of the disease in poultry:

  • highly pathogenic (HPAI) strains, which can cause severe clinical signs and potentially high mortality rates among poultry, e.g. Avian influenza A viruses of the subtypes H5 and H7, including H5N1, H7N7, and H7N3 viruses, have been associated with HPAI.
  • low pathogenic (LPAI) strains, which typically cause few or no clinical signs in poultry, e.g Influenza H9 virus, which has been identified only in a "low pathogenicity" form. However, LPAI viruses have the potential to evolve into HPAI viruses and this has been documented in some poultry outbreaks.

Equine influenza is caused by two distinct subtypes (H7N7, formerly equi -1, and H3N8, formerly equi -2) of the influenza A virus. It is an acute respiratory infection of horses, donkeys, mules and other equidae. The disease has an incubation period of only one to three days and is capable of causing explosive outbreaks. Horses with horse flu can run a fever, have a dry, hacking cough, runny nose, and become depressed and reluctant to eat or drink for several days, but they usually recover in two to three weeks.

Type B flu virus, unlike the type A flu viruses, is found only in humans. Type B flu may cause a less severe reaction than type A flu virus, but occasionally, it can be extremely harmful. Influenza type B viruses are not classified by subtype and do not cause pandemics.

The influenza C virus infects humans, dogs and pigs, is less common than the other types. It usually causes only mild disease.

Pathogens TestedTesting is available for Influenza A and B, Avian Influenza, Equine Influenza, Influenza H5N1, Subtyping of Influenza (N1 to N9, H1 to H16).

Refer to the service list for more details.

Method
  • Real-Time RT- PCR
  • PCR
  • Sequencing.
Sample Type
Accredited : Swab/Secretion (Respiratory), Swab/Secretion (Rectal), Tissue.
Specimens must be sent in RNA Preservative media.
Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Alternatives : Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code See Below
Description Legionella is characterized as gram-negative, aerobic, encapsulated bacilli. Legionnaires' disease, or Legionellosis, is a severe infection caused by Legionella species, primarily L. pneumophila which is responsible for 90% of infections. The disease typically presents as pneumonia and symptoms may include a high fever, chills, cough, muscle aches, headaches, and diarrhoea. Legionella species is also linked to Pontiac fever, which is an acute, febrile, self-limited illness. The infection is generally characterized by fever, fatigue, and muscle pain.

The bacterium is found in environmental water sources, potable water, such as that from faucets, showers, and hot water tanks and cooling towers, and hot tubs. Legionella infection can occur in a variety of hosts. Modes of transmission of Legionella include the aspiration of water contaminated with the organism and inhalation of aerosols containing Legionella. Although uncommon in animals, predisposing factors such as poor hygiene, bad management, and insufficient and/or unbalanced feeding seem to be important in the occurrence of the disease.

Pathogens Tested
  • APL-035 : Legionella Species (This Assay includes the detection of Legionella Species only. This Assay can detect Legionella pneumophila, L. adelaidensis, L. anisa, L. birminghamensis, L. bozemanii , L. brunensis, L. cherii , L. cincinnatiensis, L. dumoffii, L. erythra , L. feelei, L. gormanii, L. gratiana, L. hackeliae, L.israelensis, L. jamestownensis, L. jordanis, L. lansingensis, L. longbeachae, L. maceachernii , L. micdadei , L. moravica, L. oakridgensis paucimobilis , L. parisiensis, L. quinlivanii, L. rubrilucens, L. sainthelensis, L. spiritensis, L. steigerwaltii , L. taurinensis, L. tucsonensis, L. wadsworthii)
  • APL-034 : Legionella pneumophila (This Assay includes the detection of Legionella species and subtype Legionella pneumophila.)

Method Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
Urine, Swab/Secretion (Respiratory), Water, Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Urine sample must be frozen after collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Accredited
Assay Code APL-036
Description Leptospirosis is a transmissible disease of animals caused by infection with any of the pathogenic members of the genus Leptospira, which are aerobic, right-handed helical bacteria. Leptospirosis has a global distribution, and leptospires have been detected in more than 180 species of animals. Mammals are the only class of animals capable of transmitting Leptospira organisms, even though leptospires have been identified in reptiles and birds.

Clinical symptoms of acute leptospirosis include: sudden onset of agalactia (in adult milking cattle and sheep); icterus and haemoglobinuria, especially in young animals; meningitis; and acute renal failure or jaundice in dogs. Chronic leptospirosis results in abortion, stillbirth, birth of weak offspring (premature), infertility, chronic renal failure or chronic active hepatitis in dogs; and cases of periodic ophthalmia in horses.

Method Real-Time PCR
Sample Type
Accredited : EDTA Blood, Tissue (liver, lung, brain, kidney), Culture.
Alternatives : Urine, Milk, Cerebrospinal Fluid, Thoracic Fluid, Peritoneal Fluid.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Urine sample must be frozen after collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code APN-020
Description In September 2012, health authorities were notified of several cases of severe hCoV infection caused by a novel virus type hCoV-EMC. The strain was redefined by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses into Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) since it was first reported in Saudi Arabia.

MERS-CoV is a beta coronavirus and causes respiratory infection of humans and dromedary camels. Several studies have confirmed that Dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) are the natural host and zoonotic source of the MERS-CoV infection in humans. Other animal species may also be susceptible to infection with MERS-CoV. However, their epidemiological significance has not been proven.

Positive RT-PCR results for MERS-CoV or isolation of the virus from dromedary camels are notifiable to the OIE . While the impact of MERS-CoV on animal health is very low, human infections have a significant public health impact.

Method Real-Time RT-PCR.
Sample Type
Accredited : Swab / Secretion (Respiratory).
Alternatives : Culture, Serum.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Specimens must be sent in RNA preservative media. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code See Below
Description Mycobacterium is a genus of Actinobacteria, family Mycobacteriaceae. Over 190 species are recognized in this genus. This genus includes pathogens known to cause serious diseases in mammals, including tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and leprosy (Mycobacterium leprae) in humans. Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic disease of animals and humans caused by Mycobacterium bovis. In a large number of countries it is a major infectious disease among cattle, other domesticated animals, and certain wildlife species. Other members of the Mycobacterium genus include M. caprae (considered to be a primary pathogen of goats) and M. pinnipedii, a pathogen of fur seals and sea lions. Aerosol exposure to M. bovis is considered to be the most frequent route of infection of cattle, but infection by ingestion of contaminated material also occurs. After infection, nonvascular nodular granulomas known as tubercles may develop. Characteristic tuberculous lesions occur most frequently in the lungs and the retropharyngeal, bronchial and mediastinal lymph nodes as well as liver, spleen and other organs. Clinical signs include weakness, anorexia, emaciation, dyspnoea, enlargement of lymph nodes, and cough, particularly with advanced tuberculosis.

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is an obligate pathogenic bacterium and the causative agent of Johne's disease, which affects ruminants such as cattle, and also causes Crohn's disease in humans.

Avian tuberculosis, or avian mycobacteriosis, is an important disease that affects companion, captive exotic, wild and domestic birds and mammals and is most often caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (M. a. avium).The disease is characterized by chronic and progressive wasting, weakness and diarrhoea. The primary lesions of avian tuberculosis in birds are nearly always in the intestinal tract. Diagnosis of avian tuberculosis in birds depends on the demonstration of M. avium avium) in excretions or secretions of live birds or liver and spleen of dead birds.

Pathogens Tested
  • APM-037 : Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium (This assay includes the detection of Mycobacterium species and Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium.)
  • APM-038 : Mycobacterium Species (This assay includes the detection of Mycobacterium species only. This Assay can detect M. austroafricanum, M.avium subsp. avium,M.bovis BCG, M.chelonae,M.gordonae, M.fortuitum subsp.fortuitum, M.insubricum, M.intracellulare, M.kansasii, M.marium, M.mucogenicum, M.peregrinum, M.porcinum, M.scrofulaceum, M.setense, M.simiae, M.smegmatis, M.terrae, M.tuberculosis, M.ulcerans, M.xenopi)
  • APM-039 : Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (This assay includes the detection of Mycobacterium species and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.)
  • APM-100: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (This assay includes the detection of Mycobacterium species and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.)

Method Real- Time PCR.
Sample Type
Tissue (Intestinal tract, liver, spleen), Stool, Culture, Swab/Secretion (Respiratory), Milk, CSF, Gastric Lavage, FTA Card.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool and milk must be frozen after collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Accredited
Assay Code See Below
Description This test checks for different species of Mycoplasma. Mycoplasma refers to a genus of bacteria that are the smallest living cells known. They can be parasitic or saprotrophic. Several species are pathogenic in humans, including M. pneumoniae, which is an important cause of atypical pneumonia and other respiratory disorders, and M. genitalium, which is believed to be involved in pelvic inflammatory diseases.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae - M.pneumoniae causes a form of atypical bacterial pneumonia, also referred to as 'walking pneumonia'. Symptoms include cough that may come in violent spasms but produce very little mucus, mild flu-like symptoms such as fever and chills, sore throat, headache, tiredness and malaise. It is spread by contact with droplets from nose and throat of an infected person.

Mycoplasma genitalium - M.genitalium is a small parasitic bacterium that lives on ciliated epithelial cells of the genital tract and is sexually transmitted. In women symptoms such as vaginal itching, burning while urinating, discharge, pain during intercourse may appear. In the long term, this infection is suspected to cause pelvic inflammatory disease and cervicitis. In men it causes urogenital tract disease.

Mycoplasma bovis - M.bovis is a bacteria-like organism that causes persistent, chronic infections in calves and cows. The clinical manifestations of M.bovis include mastitis in cows and arthritis and pneumonia in young animals, genital disorders, abscess, conjunctivitis, otitis, and meningitis. The mechanisms of the pathogenesis of M. bovis are still unknown, but it uses complex strategies to invade the host organism. It adheres to the neutrophils and the macrophages, persisting and multiplying on the surface of these cells.

Pathogens Tested
  • APM-040 : Mycoplasma bovis (This Assay includes the detection of Mycoplasma bovis only.)
  • APM-041 : Mycoplasma Species (This Assay includes the detection of Mycoplasma Species only. This Assay can detect many Mycoplasma species including Mycoplasma agassizii,Mycoplasma anatis, Mycoplasma anseris, Mycoplasma arginini,Mycoplasma arthritidis,Mycoplasma auris, Mycoplasma buccale, Mycoplasma canadense,Mycoplasma cloacale,Mycoplasma collis, Mycoplasma columborale, Mycoplasma cricetuli, Mycoplasma cynos,Mycoplasma falconis,Mycoplasma faucium, Mycoplasma felis, Mycoplasma gateae,Mycoplasma gypis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma hyopharyngis, Mycoplasma hyorhinis,Mycoplasma hyosynoviae, Mycoplasma iguana, Mycoplasma lagogenitalium, Mycoplasma leonicaptivi, Mycoplasma molare, Mycoplasma mustelae, Mycoplasma neophronis,Mycoplasma neurolyticum, Mycoplasma orale, Mycoplasma phocicerebrale, Mycoplasma phocidae, Mycoplasma salivarium, Mycoplasma spumans, Mycoplasma timone, and Mycoplasma zalophi .The assay cannot detect M. pneumoniae, M. gallisepticum and M.pulmonis ).

Method Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
Accredited : Culture, Milk, Swab/Secretion (Respiratory), Tissue (esophagus, trachea, cloaca, eyes, phallus).
Alternatives : Swab / Secretions (Genital), Swab/Secretion (Organ/Abscess)
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Milk must be frozen after collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Assay Code APN-019
Description Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a single-stranded RNA virus of the Paramyxoviridae family that causes a contagious disease in birds. The linear RNA genome comprises just over 15K nucleotides that encode 6 genes. The spherical viral particle is enveloped and has external spikes formed by two proteins, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase.

NDV has been shown to be able to infect over 200 species of birds, but the severity of disease produced varies with both host and strain of virus. The virus can survive for several weeks in warm environments such as in manure or between bird feathers and enters the host by ingestion of contaminated food stuff or contact with contaminated bodily fluids.

NDV strains can be categorised as velogenic (highly virulent), mesogenic (intermediate virulence), or lentogenic (nonvirulent). Velogenic strains produce severe nervous and respiratory signs, spread rapidly, and cause up to 90% mortality. Mesogenic strains cause coughing, affect egg quality and production, and result in up to 10% mortality. Lentogenic strains produce mild signs with negligible mortality.

Method Real-Time RT-PCR.
Sample Type
Swab/Secretion (Respiratory), Stool, Tissue, Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool must be frozen after collection and delivered within 24 hours.
Specimens must be sent in RNA preservative media (except culture). Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code APN-187
Description Nipah virus is an enveloped, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus in the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Henipavirus. Primary reservoir for Nipah virus are fruit bats of the genus Pteropus. Domestic swine are extremely susceptible to infection and act as amplifying host. However, infections have also been reported in dogs, cats, horses and goats. Swine infected with Nipah virus may cause aerosols or transmit the disease by direct contact of their respiratory secretions to other swine. Incubation period in pigs is approximately 7–14 days, but may be as short as four days. Intranasal and oral inoculation of cats with virus experimentally produced disease and incubation periods of 6–8 days have been documented.

Method Real Time RT-PCR
Sample Type
EDTA Blood, CSF, Swab / Secretion (Respiratory), Urine.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Urine sample must be frozen after collection and delivered within 24 hours.
Specimens must be sent in RNA Preservative media. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.
Note Add C0105

Links

Accredited
Assay Code APO-021
Description The genus Orthopoxvirus contains a number of species that can infect animals and humans. Some members of the genus include variola (smallpox) and vaccinia virus (smallpox vaccine), cowpox virus, monkeypox virus and camelpox virus. The camelpox virus causes the disease camel pox which is a highly contagious skin disease in camelids. It causes skin lesions and a generalized infection. Approximately 25% of young camels that become infected die from the disease, while infection in older camels is generally milder. Camel pox is endemic throughout the Middle East, Africa, and Asia. The virus spreads in three ways: by direct contact, indirect contact, and insect vectors. The virus is spread through milk, saliva, ocular secretions, and nasal secretions, and has been shown to remain virulent outside of a host for 4 months. It is believed that camel ticks (Hyalomma dromedarii) can transmit the disease from one camel to another. This theory is supported by increases in Camel pox infections immediately following heavy rains, during which the camel tick population increases greatly.

Method Real-Time PCR
Sample Type
Accredited : EDTA Blood, Tissue (Skin Lesion), Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code APP-101
Description Peste-des-petits-ruminants (PPR) is an acute viral disease of small ruminants characterised by fever, oculonasal discharges, stomatitis, diarrhoea and pneumonia with foul offensive breath. It is caused by a Morbillivirus that belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae. PPR affects mainly sheep and goats and occasionally wild small ruminants. It has been reported on a few occasions in camels, cattle and buffaloes, although their potential role in the circulation of PPR virus (PPRV) is not established.

PPR occurs in Africa except Southern Africa, in the Arabian Peninsula, throughout most of the Near East and Middle East, and in Central and South-East Asia. The clinical disease resembles rinderpest in cattle. It is usually acute and characterised by pyrexia, serous ocular and nasal discharges, erosive lesions on different mucous membranes particularly in the mouth, diarrhoea and pneumonia.

Method Real -Time RT-PCR
Sample Type
Swab / Secretion (Respiratory), Culture, EDTA Blood, Tissue.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C and delivered within 24 hours. It is required to add RNA preservative media to swabs / secretion and tissue only.
Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

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Accredited
Assay Code APC-005
Description Beak and feather disease virus or Circovirus is a small, non-enveloped circular single-stranded DNA virus of the Circoviridae family. The virus causes beak and feather disease (PBFD) in avian species specifically psittacine birds such as Cockatoos, Macaws, African grey parrots and Ringnecked parakeets. Beak and feather disease virus typically targets actively growing cells like beak, feather, and the cells of the immune system resulting in secondary bacterial, fungal or parasitic infections. The viral particles remain viable in the environment for months.

Transmission of the virus from one individual to another is through direct contact, inhalation of feather dust or ingestion of infected faecal material. Clinical signs of the disease include irreversible loss of feathers, shedding of developing feathers, development of abnormal beak or feathers, and lesions on the beak and nails.

There is no known treatment and the only way to control the disease is through hygiene, strict isolation or culling of all diseased birds. Early diagnosis is necessary to control disease progression in infected birds and avoid its spread amongst uninfected ones.

Method Real -Time PCR
Sample Type
Accredited : EDTA Blood, Tissue, Culture.
Alternatives : Feather.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

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Validated
Assay Code APR-192
Description Rabies is a zoonotic disease that can affect all mammals. It is caused by Rabies lyssavirus, which is a neurotropic virus and is the type species of the Lyssavirus genus of the Rhabdoviridae family. These viruses are enveloped and have a single stranded negative-sense RNA genome.

Rabies virus is primarily transmitted through the saliva of an infected animal. Saliva becomes infectious a few days prior to the onset of clinical signs. Infection occurs primarily via bite wounds, or infected saliva entering an open cut or wound or mucus membrane, such as those in the mouth, nasal cavity or eyes. Occasional, albeit rare, transmission by inhalation of infected aerosol has been described. The incubation period varies from a few days to 6 months. Clinical observations may only lead to a suspicion of rabies because signs of the disease are not pathognomonic and may vary greatly from one animal to another. The only way to undertake a reliable diagnosis is to identify the virus using laboratory tests.

The disease has high economic consequences due to the losses in livestock and the cost of the implementation of preventive and control measures in animals.

Method Real-Time RT-PCR
Sample Type
Saliva, Tissue (brain).
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C and delivered within 24 hours of collection.Please contact MBG Lab in advance for correct package and transport requirements.
Specimens must be sent in RNA preservative media. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.
Note C0105

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Validated
Assay Code APV-195
Description SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, belongs to the genus Betacoronavirus and was firstly identified in humans in January 2020. It is primarily transmitted through droplets released when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks in close vicinity to other individuals. People can also become infected by touching surfaces that have been contaminated with the droplets of infected persons. The time from exposure to onset of symptoms is typically around five days but may range from two to 14 days.

Common symptoms include fever, cough, fatigue, shortness of breath, and loss of sense of smell and taste. Complications may include pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure, septic shock, and blood clots.

Method Real -Time RT-PCR
Sample Type
Swab / Secretion (Respiratory), Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C and within 24 hours of collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT. Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.

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Accredited
Assay Code See Below
Description Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi var. equi) is the bacterium which causes the highly contagious disease strangles (also known as "distemper"). Strangles commonly affects young horses (weanlings and yearlings), but horses of any age can be infected. Following natural infection, a carrier state of variable duration may develop and intermittent shedding of the pathogen may occur. The organism is transmitted by direct contact with infected horses or sub-clinical shedders, or indirectly by contact with: water troughs, hoses, feed bunks, pastures, stalls, trailers, tack, grooming equipment, nose wipe cloths or sponges, attendants' hands and clothing, or insects contaminated with nasal discharge or pus draining from lymph nodes of infected horses. Streptococcus equi has demonstrated environmental survivability particularly in water sources and when protected from exposure to direct sunlight and disinfectants, and can be a source of infection for new additions to the herd.

Vaccination against S. equi equi is recommended on premises where strangles is a persistent endemic problem or for horses that are expected to be at high risk of exposure. S. equi equi and S. equi zooepidemicus are antigenically similar organisms. However, exposure to, or vaccination against, one does not confer reliable immunity to the other.

Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is a B-hemolytic, Lancefield group C streptococcal bacterium. S. zooepidemicus is considered an opportunistic commensal in horses, but it may also cause infections in other domestic animals such as cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, dogs, and cats. S. equi zooepidemicus is antigenically similar to S. equi equi and shares >98% DNA sequence homology with S. equi equi which causes strangles, a highly contagious and serious disease in horses.

Pathogens Tested
  • APS-043 : Streptococcus equi subspecies equi
    (This assay includes the detection of Streptococcus equi subspecies equi and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus)
  • APB-044 :Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus
    (This assay includes the detection of Streptococcus equi subspecies equi and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus)
  • APS-042 :Streptococcus equi subspecies equi - Animal Health Trust UK Licenced
    (This assay includes the detection of Streptococcus equi subspecies equi)

Method Real-Time PCR
Sample Type
Guttural pouch flush, Swab/Secretion (Respiratory), Fluid from abscess, Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

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Accredited
Assay Code APT-045
Description Taylorella equigenitalis causes contagious equine metritis (CEM), which is an inflammatory disease of the proximal and distal reproductive tract of the mare and usually results in temporary infertility. OIE has listed CEM as a notifiable disease. Clinical signs include endometritis, cervicitis and vaginitis of variable severity and a slight to copious mucopurulent vaginal discharge. Direct venereal contact during natural mating presents the highest risk for the transmission of T. equigenitalis from a contaminated stallion or an infected mare. Direct venereal transmission can also take place by artificial insemination using infective raw, chilled and possibly frozen semen. Indirectly, infection may be acquired through fomite transmission, manual contamination, inadequate observance of appropriate biosecurity measures at the time of breeding and at semen collection centres. Stallions can become asymptomatic carriers of T. equigenitalis. The principal sites of colonisation by the bacterium are the urogenital membranes (urethral fossa, urethral sinus, terminal urethra and penile sheath). The sites of persistence of T. equigenitalis in the majority of carrier mares are the clitoral sinuses and fossa and infrequently the uterus. Foals born of carrier mares may also become carriers. The organism can infect equid species other than horses, e.g. donkeys.

Taylorella asinigenitalis is a microaerophilic, non-motile, coccobacillus, Gram-negative bacterium: It is closely related to Taylorella equigenitalis and mainly found in donkeys. It does not cause apparent disease in mares.

Pathogens TestedThis assay can detect and differentiate between Taylorella equigenitalis and Taylorella asinigenitalis.

Method Real-Time PCR
Sample Type
Accredited : Culture.
Alternatives : Swab/Secretions (Genital).
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

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Accredited
Assay Code APT-049
Description Trypanosoma evansi and T. brucei are flagellated protozoan parasites that live in the blood, lymph and various tissues of their vertebrate hosts. Trypanosoma evansi causes a trypanosomosis known as "surra". It has a wide host range. In some countries incidence of surra increases significantly during the rainy season when biting fly populations have greatly increased. Surra affects mainly camels and horses but buffaloes and cattle are also affected. Other species that develop severe disease include donkeys, mules, deer, llamas, dogs, cats, cattle and buffalo. Sheep, goats, pigs and elephants may occasionally develop mild or chronic disease.T. evansi has a wide distribution in Asia, North Africa (extending into tsetse areas with T. brucei infections) and Central and South America.

T. evansi is transmitted from animal to animal by mechanical vectors such as hematophagous flies, including Tabanus spp. and Musca spp., as well as Lyperosia, Stomoxys and Atylotus genera. Tabanids (horse flies) are the most significant vectors. Infection occurs through blood from infected animals and occasionally through meat and milk. T. evansi frequently localizes extravascularly in tissues including the central nervous system. The disease is characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and parasitaemia. Abortions have been reported in buffaloes and camels.

Pathogens TestedThis assay is used for the detection of both Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma brucei, however, it cannot differentiate between the two subtypes.

Method Real-Time PCR
Sample Type
Accredited : EDTA blood, Culture.
Alternatives : Tissue.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

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Accredited
Assay Code APW-022
Description West Nile virus (WNV) is a zoonotic mosquito-transmitted arbovirus belonging to the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. It is a positive-sense, ssRNA virus and causes West Nile fever, that affects birds, humans and horses causing inapparent infection, mild febrile illness, meningitis, encephalitis, or death. The arbovirus is maintained in nature by cycling through birds and mosquitoes.WNV also causes sporadic disease in other species including squirrels, chipmunks, bats, dogs, cats, white-tailed deer, reindeer, sheep, alpacas, alligators and harbour seals. Dromedary camel has also been implicated as a possible source for the viral infection.

For many avian species, WNV infection causes no overt signs while other birds, such as American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata), often succumb to fatal systemic illness. Most species of birds can become infected with WNV, however, the clinical outcome of infection is variable. Some species appear resistant while others such as American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata) suffer fatal neurologic disease.

Clinical signs of WNV infection in horses arise from viral-induced encephalitis or encephalomyelitis. Affected horses frequently demonstrate mild to severe ataxia. Some horses exhibit weakness, muscle fasciculation, and cranial nerve deficits.

Brain and spinal cord are the preferred tissues for virus isolation from horses. Bird tissues generally contain higher concentrations of virus than equine tissues. In birds, kidney, heart, brain, liver or intestine can yield virus isolates.

Method Real-Time RT-PCR.
Sample Type
Accredited : Tissue (brain, kidney, heart, liver, intestine), Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Tissue must be sent in RNA preservative media.
Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 5 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 3 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

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