Molecular Biology & Genetics Laboratory

Gender Identification


The identification of gender in animal populations is essential to understand population dynamics, structure, habitat use, behavior patterns and mating systems and beneficial in breeding management.
Molecular gender identification is a powerful tool that is robust, fast, accurate and requires small amount of sample. Non-molecular methods may be used for gender identification in some animals but may not be reliable and accurate in others. It is particularly useful when sex specific characters are absent or are difficult to observe.

Accredited
Assay Code AOT-050
Description Gender identification is crucial to understand the behaviour, evolution ecology, genetics and breeding of avian species. It is also important to protect and sustain endangered avian species by selective breeding or/and producing a hybrid between common and endangered avian species.
Based on morphological appearance it is difficult to determine the sex in most of the bird species especially in chicks. The DNA based avian sexing has an accuracy rate greater than 99.9 %.In birds, females are heterogametic (ZW) whereas males are homogametic (ZZ).
Hence, in birds, sex is determined at the molecular level by detecting W chromosome linked markers. Uniquely designed primers are used to amplify these sequences by PCR. This method of sexing has become the method of choice for bird owners worldwide. MBG accepts a variety of sample types (feathers, egg shells, tissues, blood etc) for this service.

Species Tested
  • Eagle
  • Emu
  • Falcon
  • Kite
  • Ostrich
  • Owl
  • Parrot
  • And many others species
    Including but not limited to (Contact MBG Lab for more information) :
    Avocet, Bird of paradise, Bulbul, Bustard, Buzzard, Cattle Egret,
    Chicken, Cockatiel, Cockatoo, Common ringed Plover, Crab Plover,
    Crane, Crow, Curassows,Curlew, Dove, Duck, Dunlin, Flamingo,
    Francolin, Godwit, Goose, Goshawk, Ground Hornbill, Guineafowl,
    Harrier, Hawk, Heron, Hornbill, Ibis, Kentish plover, Kestrel, Lapwing,
    Lorikeet, Love Brid, Oystercatcher, Parakeet, Partridge, Peacock,
    Pelican, Penguin, Pigeon, Quail, Red-wattled plover, Sandpiper, Secretary Bird,
    Shank, Shelduck, Spoonbill, Spotted Thick knee, Starling, Stilts, Stone Curlew, Stork, Swan, Toucan, Turaco, Vulture, Whimbrel.

Method PCR and Gel Electrophoresis
Sample Type
Accredited : EDTA Blood, Feathers, Tissue, Fresh eggshells with the membrane.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C; except feathers which can be transported at room temperature.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT. Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.
Note Fresh medium sized feathers are required. Feathers must be freshly plucked out and should have roots. Loose feathers fallen from the bird will not be accepted as sample.
Samples should be individually placed in appropriate labelled containers.

Links

Assay Code Contact MBG Lab
Description Gender identification in mammals is essential for understanding population structure and dynamics, for conservation, mating and breeding management, and behavioral studies. It is also useful in solving forensic cases.

In general, the mammals have two sex chromosomes X and Y. The sex determination in mammals is genetic. In sexually dimorphic mammals, females and males differ in their appearance. They may not only have different sex organs but may also differ in their secondary characters such as size, color, and shape. In species that do not have sexual dimorphism or in less distinctive young animals, genetics is used to determine the sex. This genetic test is quick, reliable and the animals do not have to undergo invasive stressful gender examination.

The SRY-genes (sex-determining factor Y), ZFX/Y (zinc finger protein), AMELX, and AMELY (amelogenin) genes are the most common genes used to determine gender in mammals.

Species Tested
  • Camel
  • Horse
  • Monkey
  • Canine
  • Chimpanzee
  • Orangutan
  • Gibbon

Method PCR and Gel Electrophoresis.
Sample Type
EDTA Blood, Hair, Tissue.
Transport Condition Blood and tissue should be transported at 4°C, except hair samples which can be transported at room temperature.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT. Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.

Links




Molecular Biology & Genetics Laboratory

Gender Identification


The identification of gender in animal populations is essential to understand population dynamics, structure, habitat use, behavior patterns and mating systems and beneficial in breeding management.
Molecular gender identification is a powerful tool that is robust, fast, accurate and requires small amount of sample. Non-molecular methods may be used for gender identification in some animals but may not be reliable and accurate in others. It is particularly useful when sex specific characters are absent or are difficult to observe.

Accredited
Assay Code AOT-050
Description Gender identification is crucial to understand the behaviour, evolution ecology, genetics and breeding of avian species. It is also important to protect and sustain endangered avian species by selective breeding or/and producing a hybrid between common and endangered avian species.
Based on morphological appearance it is difficult to determine the sex in most of the bird species especially in chicks. The DNA based avian sexing has an accuracy rate greater than 99.9 %.In birds, females are heterogametic (ZW) whereas males are homogametic (ZZ).
Hence, in birds, sex is determined at the molecular level by detecting W chromosome linked markers. Uniquely designed primers are used to amplify these sequences by PCR. This method of sexing has become the method of choice for bird owners worldwide. MBG accepts a variety of sample types (feathers, egg shells, tissues, blood etc) for this service.

Species Tested
  • Eagle
  • Emu
  • Falcon
  • Kite
  • Ostrich
  • Owl
  • Parrot
  • And many others species
    Including but not limited to (Contact MBG Lab for more information) :
    Avocet, Bird of paradise, Bulbul, Bustard, Buzzard, Cattle Egret,
    Chicken, Cockatiel, Cockatoo, Common ringed Plover, Crab Plover,
    Crane, Crow, Curassows,Curlew, Dove, Duck, Dunlin, Flamingo,
    Francolin, Godwit, Goose, Goshawk, Ground Hornbill, Guineafowl,
    Harrier, Hawk, Heron, Hornbill, Ibis, Kentish plover, Kestrel, Lapwing,
    Lorikeet, Love Brid, Oystercatcher, Parakeet, Partridge, Peacock,
    Pelican, Penguin, Pigeon, Quail, Red-wattled plover, Sandpiper, Secretary Bird,
    Shank, Shelduck, Spoonbill, Spotted Thick knee, Starling, Stilts, Stone Curlew, Stork, Swan, Toucan, Turaco, Vulture, Whimbrel.

Method PCR and Gel Electrophoresis
Sample Type
Accredited : EDTA Blood, Feathers, Tissue, Fresh eggshells with the membrane.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C; except feathers which can be transported at room temperature.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT. Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.
Note Fresh medium sized feathers are required. Feathers must be freshly plucked out and should have roots. Loose feathers fallen from the bird will not be accepted as sample.
Samples should be individually placed in appropriate labelled containers.

Links

Assay Code Contact MBG Lab
Description Gender identification in mammals is essential for understanding population structure and dynamics, for conservation, mating and breeding management, and behavioral studies. It is also useful in solving forensic cases.

In general, the mammals have two sex chromosomes X and Y. The sex determination in mammals is genetic. In sexually dimorphic mammals, females and males differ in their appearance. They may not only have different sex organs but may also differ in their secondary characters such as size, color, and shape. In species that do not have sexual dimorphism or in less distinctive young animals, genetics is used to determine the sex. This genetic test is quick, reliable and the animals do not have to undergo invasive stressful gender examination.

The SRY-genes (sex-determining factor Y), ZFX/Y (zinc finger protein), AMELX, and AMELY (amelogenin) genes are the most common genes used to determine gender in mammals.

Species Tested
  • Camel
  • Horse
  • Monkey
  • Canine
  • Chimpanzee
  • Orangutan
  • Gibbon

Method PCR and Gel Electrophoresis.
Sample Type
EDTA Blood, Hair, Tissue.
Transport Condition Blood and tissue should be transported at 4°C, except hair samples which can be transported at room temperature.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT. Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.

Links