Molecular Biology & Genetics Laboratory

Pathogen Identification


Molecular based methods have advanced the laboratory testing to faster and better diagnostics. PCR methods, microarray and next generation sequencing have provided speed and high level of accuracy. Molecular biology based methods are sensitive and quick to detect microbial pathogens in various clinical specimens. We offer molecular detection of pathogenic viruses, bacteria and parasites from clinical specimens. MBG Lab is ISO 15189 accredited and benefits from a stand-alone containment Level 3 facility where samples for highly contagious pathogen are received and processed.


All Bacteria Virus Fungi Parasite


Validated
Assay Code HPB-072
Description Bacterial gastroenteritis is inflammation of the stomach and intestines caused by bacteria. Salmonella, Shigella, and Campylobacter species are the top 3 leading causes of bacterial diarrhea worldwide. Organisms such as E coli and Clostridium species are normal enteric flora, pathogenic strains of which can cause gastroenteritis. Symptoms include watery diarrhea, Nausea and vomiting, Fever and chills, abdominal pain, Blood in the stool (in severe cases).

Pathogens TestedEnterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (VTEC) is a subset of pathogenic E. coli that can cause diarrhoea or hemorrhagic colitis in humans. It is a food-borne pathogen.

Campylobacter are curved, rod-shaped, non-spore forming, Gram-negative microaerophilic bacteria predominantly found in animal faeces. Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common causes of human gastroenteritis globally. The routes of transmission are faecal-oral, person-to-person sexual contact, ingestion of contaminated food or water, and the eating of raw meat. It produces an inflammatory, sometimes bloody diarrhoea, periodontitis or dysentery syndrome, mostly including cramps, fever and pain.

Clostridium difficile , often called C. difficile or C. diff, is a bacterium that can cause symptoms ranging from diarrhoea to life-threatening inflammation of the colon. Clostridium difficile is best known for causing antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD). C. difficile bacteria are found throughout the environment in soil, air, water, human and animal faeces, and food products such as processed meats.

Yersinia enterocolitica is a bacterial species in the family Enterobacteriaceae that most often causes enterocolitis, acute diarrhoea, terminal ileitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis, and pseudoappendicitis but, if it spreads systemically, can also result in fatal sepsis. Symptoms of Y enterocolitica infection typically include diarrhoea, low-grade fever, abdominal pain and vomiting. Yersiniae are usually transmitted to humans by insufficiently cooked pork or contaminated water.

Shigella is a genus of Gram-negative, non-spore forming rod-shaped bacteria closely related to Escherichia coli and Salmonella and the causative agent of human shigellosis. Shigella infection typically occurs via ingestion (faecal oral contamination). It typically causes cramps, nausea, vomiting and dysentery. Some strains produce enterotoxin and shigatoxin, similar to the verotoxin of enterohemorragic Escherichia coli. Both shigatoxin and verotoxin are associated with causing hemolytic uremic syndrome.

Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped, Gram-negative, non-spore forming, predominantly motile Enterobacteriae. A salmonella infection is a food borne illness caused by the salmonella bacteria carried by some animals, which can be transmitted from kitchen surfaces and can be found in water, soil, animal feces, raw meats, and eggs. Salmonella infections typically affect the intestines (Salmonellosis), causing vomiting, fever, and other symptoms that usually resolve without medical treatment.
Salmonella are closely related to the Escherichia genus and are found worldwide in warm- and cold-blooded animals, in humans, and in nonliving habitats. They cause illnesses in humans and many animals, such as typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, and the food-borne disease salmonellosis. Salmonella can survive several weeks in a dry environment and several months in water; thus, they are frequently found in polluted water; contamination from the excrement of carrier animals being particularly important.

Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) causes an infection that is identical to Shigellosis, with profuse diarrhea and high fever. The illness is characterized by the appearance of blood and mucus in the stools of infected individuals or by a condition called colitis. Dysentery caused by EIEC usually occurs within 12 to 72 hours following the ingestion of contaminated food.

Method Real-Time PCR
Sample Type
Stool.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool should be transported to MBG Lab within 24h of collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code See Below
Description Brucellosis is a widespread zoonosis mainly transmitted from cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and camels through direct contact with blood, placenta, fetuses or uterine secretions, or through consumption of contaminated raw animal products (especially unpasteurized milk and soft cheese). In endemic areas, human brucellosis has serious public health consequences.There are various types of brucellosis: bovine brucellosis, which primarily affects cattle, caused by Brucella abortus, and can also affect humans.

Brucella melitensisis is the most prevalent species causing human brucellosis worldwide, owing in part to difficulties in immunizing free-ranging goats and sheep. In countries where eradication in animals (through vaccination and/or elimination of infected animals) is not feasible, prevention of human infection is primarily based on raising awareness, food-safety measures, occupational hygiene and laboratory safety.

In most countries, brucellosis is a notifiable disease. The incubation period is highly variable, usually 2-4 weeks, can be 1 week to 2 months or longer. Symptoms include acute undulating fever, headache, arthralgia, night sweats, fatigue and anorexia.

Pathogens Tested
  • HPB-023 : Brucella abortus (This Assay includes the detection of Brucella species and Brucella abortus)
  • HPB-024 : Brucella melitensis (This Assay includes the detection of Brucella species and Brucella melitensis)
  • HPB-025 : Brucella Species (This Assay includes the detection of Brucella species. This Assay can detect many Brucella species including B.abortus, B.melitensis, B.suis and B. canis)

Method Real-Time PCR
Sample Type
EDTA blood, Tissue (Fetal), Culture, Swab/ Secretion (Genital), Milk, Semen.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Milk should be transported preferably at -20°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code See Below
Description Campylobacteriosis is a bacterial disease caused by Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. Campylobacter usually causes a mild to severe infection of the gastrointestinal system, including watery or bloody diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting. Sometimes animals can spread Campylobacter to humans. Most people get campylobacteriosis from contaminated food. However, animals can have Campylobacter in their feces (stool). If people touch contaminated feces, they can get sick. Animals that may carry Campylobacter in their feces include farm animals, cats, and dogs. Animals do not have to be ill to pass Campylobacter to humans. People with compromised immune systems, including those undergoing treatments for cancer, organ transplant patients, and people with HIV/AIDS, have a higher risk than others of getting Campylobacter infection from food and animals.

Pathogens Tested
  • HPC-029 : Campylobacter coli
  • HPC-028 : Campylobacter jejuni

Method Real -Time PCR.
Sample Type
Culture , Stool, Swab/ Secretion (Rectal).
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool should be transported to MBG Lab within 24h of collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days. Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPC-031
Description Chlamydia trachomatis: is the most commonly known species and the causative agent of Chlamydia, the sexually transmitted disease. This bacterium can also be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy and infect the eyes causing conjunctivitis. The genital infection causes urethritis, epididymitis and prostatitis in males and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) in females with an increased risk of contracting HIV. Transmission of the bacteria occurs via contact with infected bodily fluids which then infect mucosal membranes.

Chlamydophila pneumonia: is a etiologic agent of respiratory tract infection, mainly pneumonia. C.pneumoniae is the causative agent of an atypical pneumonia (walking pneumonia) similar to those caused by Mycoplasma pneumonia and Legionella pneumonia. Chlamydophila pneumonia can cause bronchitis, sinusitis, pneumonia and possibly atherosclerosis. The organism is transmitted person- to-person by respiratory droplets and causes bronchitis, sinusitis and pneumonia.

Chlamydia psittaci: causes psittacosis, and occasionally conjuctivitis and myocarditis in man, and infection associated with abortion, arthritis, conjuctivitis, encephalomyelitis and enteritis. Infection is usually asymptomatic. Mild flu-like illness and Reactive arthritis may appear. Human infection with C. psittaci usually occurs when a person inhales organisms that have been aerosolized from dried feces or respiratory tract secretions of infected birds.

Method Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
Swab / Secretion (Respiratory), Swab / Secretion (Conjunctival), Stool, EDTA blood, Culture, Tissue, CSF.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPC-032
Description Clostridium perfringens (formerly known as C. welchii, or Bacillus welchii) is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming pathogenic bacterium of the genus Clostridium. C. perfringens is ever present in nature and can be found as a normal component of decaying vegetation, marine sediment, the intestinal tract of humans and other vertebrates, insects, and soil. It has the shortest reported generation time of any organism at 6.3 minutes in thioglycollate medium.

Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) is one of the most common causes of food poisoning. Cooking kills the growing C. perfringens cells that cause food poisoning, but not necessarily the spores that can grow into new cells. If cooked food is not promptly served or refrigerated, the spores can grow and produce new cells. These bacteria thrive between 40-140°F (the Danger Zone). This means that they grow quickly at room temperature, but they cannot grow at refrigerator or freezer temperatures. Since C. perfringens forms spores that can withstand cooking temperatures, if cooked food is let stand for long enough, germination can ensue and infective bacterial colonies develop. Symptoms typically include abdominal cramping, diarrhea; vomiting and fever are usual. The whole course usually resolves within 24 hours. Very rare, fatal cases of clostridial necrotizing enteritis (also known as pigbel) have been known to involve "Type C" strains of the organism, which produce a potently ulcerative beta-toxin.

This assay can detect alpha, beta-2, epsilon, iota and enterotoxin.

Method Multi Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
Stool, Swab / Secretion (Rectal), Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPC-033
Description Coxiella burnetii is a gram negative coccobacillus that causes Q-Fever disease in animals and humans. It belongs to a group of organisms known as Rickettsia. The organism may be found in the birth products (i.e. placenta, amniotic fluid), urine, feces, and milk of infected animals.

In humans, Q Fever is generally a self-limiting illness. People get infected by breathing in dust that has been contaminated by infected animal feces, urine, milk, and birth products that contain Coxiella burnetii. Direct contact (e.g. touching, being licked) with an animal is not required to become sick with Q fever. People may also get sick with Q fever by eating contaminated, unpasteurized dairy products. Rarely, Q fever has been spread through blood transfusion, from a pregnant woman to her fetus, or through sex.

This assay is used for the detection of both C. burnetti and C. symbiont; however, it cannot be used to differentiate between the two subtypes

Pathogens Tested
  • Coxiella burnetti
  • Coxiella symbiont;

Method Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
EDTA blood, Tissue (placental), Culture, Milk, Stool, Urine, Amniotic fluid.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool should be transported to MBG Lab within 24h of collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days. Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPG-073
Description STD Panel is an in vitro test for the detection of viral and bacterial DNA as an aid in the Evaluation of infections by Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrheae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Herpes simplex virus 1 & 2, Treponema pallidum. These infections are sexually transmitted and can be life threatening if left untreated.

To prevent getting a sexually transmitted disease, or STD, always avoid sex with anyone who has genital sores, a rash, discharge, or other symptoms. Use of barrier devices during intercourse can prevent the spread of STD.

Pathogens TestedChlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacteria commonly causing sexually transmitted disease that can lead to infertility. Usually asymptomatic in women, some develop pelvic inflammatory disease, unusual vaginal bleeding or discharge. In males symptoms such as infectious urethritis, painful or burning sensation when urinating, an unusual discharge from the penis, swollen or tender testicles, or fever are seen. Occasionally infection may spread to the epididymis (storage tubes for sperm overlying the testes in the testicle), which can be very painful and may lead to infertility. Chlamydia can also be passed from an infected mother to her baby during vaginal childbirth.

Neisseria gonorrhoeae - Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as gonococci, is a species of Gram-negative bacteria responsible for the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea in both men and women. Often, gonorrhea has no symptoms. Most people are not aware that they have the infection - especially women. Some women may have symptoms such as vaginal discharge, lower abdominal pain or pain with intercourse. If left untreated it can lead to long term complication such as pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy and infertility. Most men who are infected have symptoms such as urethritis associated with burning with urination and discharge from the penis. In both men and women if gonorrhea is left untreated, it may spread locally causing epididymitis throughout the body, affecting joints and heart valves. Gonorrhea can also be passed from a woman to her fetus during birth.

Mycoplasma genitalium - Mycoplasma genitalium is a small parasitic bacterium which lives on cilated epithelial cells of the genital tract and is sexually transmitted. In women, symptoms such as vaginal itching, burning while urinating, discharge, pain during intercourse may appear. In the long term, this infection is suspected to cause pelvic inflammatory disease and cervicitis. In men it is a major agent in urogenital tract disease.

Herpes simplex virus 1 & 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), also known as Human herpes virus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and -2), are two members of the herpes virus family, Herpesviridae, that cause genital ulcers. HSV is a sexually transmitted disease. HSV-1 is associated with many clinical manifestations including gingivostomatitis, eye infections, and various skin complications including cold sores, whitlow and super infection of eczema. HSV-2 is sexually transmitted and produces painful sores, usually in the genital area.HSV can also cause meningitis or encephalitis. Sometimes genital herpes infection can lead to miscarriage or premature birth. Herpes infection can be passed from mother to child resulting in a potentially fatal infection (neonatal herpes).

Treponema pallidum is a spirochaete bacterium with subspecies that cause treponemal diseases such as syphilis, bejel, pinta which spread through close sexual contact. Syphilis is a highly contagious disease spread primarily by sexual activity. The bacteria pass through intact mucous membranes and abraded skin; they are then carried by the blood stream to every organ in the body. The symptoms of syphilis depend on the stage of the disease. Many people do not have symptoms. In general, painless sores and swollen lymph nodes are possible symptoms of primary syphilis. Those with secondary syphilis may also have fever, fatigue, rash, aches and pains, and loss of appetite, among other symptoms. Tertiary syphilis causes heart, brain, and nervous system problems. The organism can also be transmitted to a fetus by transplacental passage during the later stages of pregnancy, giving rise to congenital syphilis.

Method Real-Time PCR
Sample Type
Swab / Secretion (Genital) , Swab / Secretion (Rectal), Swab / Secretion (Abscess), Urine.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Please, contact MBG Lab for more information

Validated
Assay Code See Below
Description Legionella is a pathogenic group of gram negative bacterium. It thrives in central heating and air conditioning systems. Legionella pneumophila is the primary human pathogenic bacterium and is the causative agent of legionellosis or Legionnaires disease. Legionella pneumophila invades and replicates in macrophages. Patients with Legionnaires disease usually have pneumonia, fever, chills, and a cough, which may be dry or may produce sputum. Some patients also have muscle aches, headache, tiredness, loss of appetite, loss of coordination (ataxia), and occasionally diarrhoea and vomiting. Confusion and impaired cognition and low normal heart rate may also occur. Test may reveal the patient's renal functions, liver functions and electrolytes are deranged, including hyponatremia. It is not transmitted from person to person. It is transmitted by inhalation of aerosolized water and/or soil contaminated with the bacteria.

Legionella longbeachae causes Pontiac fever. Pontiac fever is an acute, non-fatal respiratory disease that causes a mild upper respiratory infection. Symptoms can include fever, headaches and muscle aches but unlike Legionnaires' disease Pontiac Fever does not cause pneumonia. Like other Legionella species, person-to-person transmission has not been documented. However, unlike other species the primary transmission mode is inhalation of dust from contaminated compost or soil that contains the organism causing legionellosis.

Pathogens Tested
  • HPL-034 : Legionella pneumophila (This assay includes the detection of Legionella species and subtype Legionella pneumophila.)
  • HPL-035 : Legionella Species (This assay includes the detection of Legionella species. This Assay can detect Legionella pneumophila, L. adelaidensis, L. anisa, L. birminghamensis, L. bozemanii , L. brunensis, L. cherii , L. cincinnatiensis, L. dumoffii, L. erythra , L. feelei, L. gormanii, L. gratiana, L. hackeliae, L.israelensis, L. jamestownensis, L. jordanis, L. lansingensis, L. longbeachae, L. maceachernii , L. micdadei , L. moravica, L. oakridgensis paucimobilis , L. parisiensis, L. quinlivanii, L. rubrilucens, L. sainthelensis, L. spiritensis, L. steigerwaltii , L. taurinensis, L. tucsonensis, L. wadsworthii)

Method Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
Water, Swab / Secretion (Respiratory), Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPL-036
Description Leptospirosis is a transmissible disease of animals and humans caused by infection with any of the pathogenic members of the genus Leptospira. It is considered the most common zoonosis in the world and is associated with rodents in settings of poor sanitation, agricultural occupations, and increasingly "adventure" sports or races involving fresh water, mud, or soil exposure. Humans can become infected through: Contact with urine (or other body fluids, except saliva) from infected animals. Contact with water, soil, or food contaminated with the urine of infected animals. The bacteria can enter the body through skin or mucous membranes (eyes, nose, or mouth), especially if the skin is broken from a cut or scratch. Drinking contaminated water can also cause infection. Outbreaks of leptospirosis are usually caused by exposure to contaminated water, such as floodwaters. Person to person transmission is rare.

Method Real-Time PCR
Sample Type
EDTA blood, Swab / Secretion (Organ), Tissue, Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code See Below
Description Mycobacterium is a genus of Actinobacteria, family Mycobacteriaceae. Over 190 species are recognized in this genus. This genus includes pathogens known to cause serious diseases in mammals, including tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and leprosy (Mycobacterium leprae) in humans. Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic disease of animals and humans caused by Mycobacterium bovis.

Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria usually attack the lungs, but TB bacteria can attack any part of the body such as the kidney, spine, and brain. Not everyone infected with TB bacteria becomes sick. As a result, two TB-related conditions exist: latent TB infection (LTBI) and TB disease. If not treated properly, TB disease can be fatal. There are two kinds of tests that are used to detect TB bacteria in the body: the TB skin test (TST) and TB blood tests. A positive TB skin test or TB blood test only tells that a person has been infected with TB bacteria. It does not tell whether the person has latent TB infection (LTBI) or has progressed to TB disease. Other tests, such as a chest x-ray and a sample of sputum, are needed to see whether the person has TB disease.

Pathogens Tested
  • HPM-038 : Mycobacterium species (This assay includes the detection of Mycobacterium species. This assay can detect M. austroafricanum, M.avium subsp. avium,M.bovis BCG, M.chelonae, M.gordonae, M.fortuitum subsp.fortuitum, M.insubricum, M.intracellulare, M.kansasii, M.marium, M.mucogenicum, M.peregrinum, M.porcinum, M.scrofulaceum, M.setense, M.simiae, M.smegmatis, M.terrae, M.tuberculosis, M.ulcerans, M.xenopi)
  • HPM-100 : Mycobacterium tuberculosis (This assay includes the detection of Mycobacterium species and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.)

Method Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
EDTA blood, Blood on FTA card, Stool, Swab / Secretion (Respiratory), Tissue, Culture, CSF, Urine (for urinary TB).
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool should be transported to MBG Lab within 24h of collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPM-041
Description Mycoplasma refers to a genus of bacteria that are the smallest living cells known. They can be parasitic or saprotrophic.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae causes the disease mycoplasma pneumonia, a form of atypical bacterial pneumonia, and is related to cold agglutinin disease. It is also referred to as walking pneumonia. Symptoms include cough that may come in violent spasms but produce very little mucus, mild flu-like symptoms such as fever and chills, sore throat, headache, tiredness malaise and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). It is spread by contact with droplets from nose and throat of an infected person.

Mycoplasma genitalium is a small parasitic bacterium that lives on cilated epithelial cells of the genital tract and is sexually transmitted. In women symptoms such as vaginal itching, burning while urinating, discharge, pain during intercourse may appear. In the long term, this infection is suspected to cause pelvic inflammatory disease and cervicitis. In men, it is a major agent in urogenital tract disease.

Pathogens TestedThis assay can detect many Mycoplasma species including Mycoplasma agassizii,Mycoplasma anatis, Mycoplasma anseris, Mycoplasma arginini,Mycoplasma arthritidis,Mycoplasma auris, Mycoplasma buccale, Mycoplasma canadense,Mycoplasma cloacale,Mycoplasma collis, Mycoplasma columborale, Mycoplasma cricetuli, Mycoplasma cynos,Mycoplasma falconis,Mycoplasma faucium, Mycoplasma felis, Mycoplasma gateae,Mycoplasma gypis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma hyopharyngis, Mycoplasma hyorhinis,Mycoplasma hyosynoviae, Mycoplasma iguana, Mycoplasma lagogenitalium, Mycoplasma leonicaptivi, Mycoplasma molare, Mycoplasma mustelae, Mycoplasma neophronis,Mycoplasma neurolyticum, Mycoplasma orale, Mycoplasma phocicerebrale, Mycoplasma phocidae, Mycoplasma salivarium, Mycoplasma spumans, Mycoplasma timone, and Mycoplasma zalophi .

The assay cannot detect Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma pulmonis.

Method Real-Time PCR
Sample Type
Tissue, EDTA blood, Swab/ Secretion (Respiratory), Swab / Secretion (Conjunctival), Swab/ Secretion (Genital), CSF, Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links




Molecular Biology & Genetics Laboratory

Pathogen Identification


Molecular based methods have advanced the laboratory testing to faster and better diagnostics. PCR methods, microarray and next generation sequencing have provided speed and high level of accuracy. Molecular biology based methods are sensitive and quick to detect microbial pathogens in various clinical specimens. We offer molecular detection of pathogenic viruses, bacteria and parasites from clinical specimens. MBG Lab is ISO 15189 accredited and benefits from a stand-alone containment Level 3 facility where samples for highly contagious pathogen are received and processed.


All Bacteria Virus Fungi Parasite


Validated
Assay Code HPB-072
Description Bacterial gastroenteritis is inflammation of the stomach and intestines caused by bacteria. Salmonella, Shigella, and Campylobacter species are the top 3 leading causes of bacterial diarrhea worldwide. Organisms such as E coli and Clostridium species are normal enteric flora, pathogenic strains of which can cause gastroenteritis. Symptoms include watery diarrhea, Nausea and vomiting, Fever and chills, abdominal pain, Blood in the stool (in severe cases).

Pathogens TestedEnterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (VTEC) is a subset of pathogenic E. coli that can cause diarrhoea or hemorrhagic colitis in humans. It is a food-borne pathogen.

Campylobacter are curved, rod-shaped, non-spore forming, Gram-negative microaerophilic bacteria predominantly found in animal faeces. Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common causes of human gastroenteritis globally. The routes of transmission are faecal-oral, person-to-person sexual contact, ingestion of contaminated food or water, and the eating of raw meat. It produces an inflammatory, sometimes bloody diarrhoea, periodontitis or dysentery syndrome, mostly including cramps, fever and pain.

Clostridium difficile , often called C. difficile or C. diff, is a bacterium that can cause symptoms ranging from diarrhoea to life-threatening inflammation of the colon. Clostridium difficile is best known for causing antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD). C. difficile bacteria are found throughout the environment in soil, air, water, human and animal faeces, and food products such as processed meats.

Yersinia enterocolitica is a bacterial species in the family Enterobacteriaceae that most often causes enterocolitis, acute diarrhoea, terminal ileitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis, and pseudoappendicitis but, if it spreads systemically, can also result in fatal sepsis. Symptoms of Y enterocolitica infection typically include diarrhoea, low-grade fever, abdominal pain and vomiting. Yersiniae are usually transmitted to humans by insufficiently cooked pork or contaminated water.

Shigella is a genus of Gram-negative, non-spore forming rod-shaped bacteria closely related to Escherichia coli and Salmonella and the causative agent of human shigellosis. Shigella infection typically occurs via ingestion (faecal oral contamination). It typically causes cramps, nausea, vomiting and dysentery. Some strains produce enterotoxin and shigatoxin, similar to the verotoxin of enterohemorragic Escherichia coli. Both shigatoxin and verotoxin are associated with causing hemolytic uremic syndrome.

Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped, Gram-negative, non-spore forming, predominantly motile Enterobacteriae. A salmonella infection is a food borne illness caused by the salmonella bacteria carried by some animals, which can be transmitted from kitchen surfaces and can be found in water, soil, animal feces, raw meats, and eggs. Salmonella infections typically affect the intestines (Salmonellosis), causing vomiting, fever, and other symptoms that usually resolve without medical treatment.
Salmonella are closely related to the Escherichia genus and are found worldwide in warm- and cold-blooded animals, in humans, and in nonliving habitats. They cause illnesses in humans and many animals, such as typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, and the food-borne disease salmonellosis. Salmonella can survive several weeks in a dry environment and several months in water; thus, they are frequently found in polluted water; contamination from the excrement of carrier animals being particularly important.

Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) causes an infection that is identical to Shigellosis, with profuse diarrhea and high fever. The illness is characterized by the appearance of blood and mucus in the stools of infected individuals or by a condition called colitis. Dysentery caused by EIEC usually occurs within 12 to 72 hours following the ingestion of contaminated food.

Method Real-Time PCR
Sample Type
Stool.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool should be transported to MBG Lab within 24h of collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code See Below
Description Brucellosis is a widespread zoonosis mainly transmitted from cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and camels through direct contact with blood, placenta, fetuses or uterine secretions, or through consumption of contaminated raw animal products (especially unpasteurized milk and soft cheese). In endemic areas, human brucellosis has serious public health consequences.There are various types of brucellosis: bovine brucellosis, which primarily affects cattle, caused by Brucella abortus, and can also affect humans.

Brucella melitensisis is the most prevalent species causing human brucellosis worldwide, owing in part to difficulties in immunizing free-ranging goats and sheep. In countries where eradication in animals (through vaccination and/or elimination of infected animals) is not feasible, prevention of human infection is primarily based on raising awareness, food-safety measures, occupational hygiene and laboratory safety.

In most countries, brucellosis is a notifiable disease. The incubation period is highly variable, usually 2-4 weeks, can be 1 week to 2 months or longer. Symptoms include acute undulating fever, headache, arthralgia, night sweats, fatigue and anorexia.

Pathogens Tested
  • HPB-023 : Brucella abortus (This Assay includes the detection of Brucella species and Brucella abortus)
  • HPB-024 : Brucella melitensis (This Assay includes the detection of Brucella species and Brucella melitensis)
  • HPB-025 : Brucella Species (This Assay includes the detection of Brucella species. This Assay can detect many Brucella species including B.abortus, B.melitensis, B.suis and B. canis)

Method Real-Time PCR
Sample Type
EDTA blood, Tissue (Fetal), Culture, Swab/ Secretion (Genital), Milk, Semen.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Milk should be transported preferably at -20°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code See Below
Description Campylobacteriosis is a bacterial disease caused by Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. Campylobacter usually causes a mild to severe infection of the gastrointestinal system, including watery or bloody diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting. Sometimes animals can spread Campylobacter to humans. Most people get campylobacteriosis from contaminated food. However, animals can have Campylobacter in their feces (stool). If people touch contaminated feces, they can get sick. Animals that may carry Campylobacter in their feces include farm animals, cats, and dogs. Animals do not have to be ill to pass Campylobacter to humans. People with compromised immune systems, including those undergoing treatments for cancer, organ transplant patients, and people with HIV/AIDS, have a higher risk than others of getting Campylobacter infection from food and animals.

Pathogens Tested
  • HPC-029 : Campylobacter coli
  • HPC-028 : Campylobacter jejuni

Method Real -Time PCR.
Sample Type
Culture , Stool, Swab/ Secretion (Rectal).
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool should be transported to MBG Lab within 24h of collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days. Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

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Validated
Assay Code HPC-031
Description Chlamydia trachomatis: is the most commonly known species and the causative agent of Chlamydia, the sexually transmitted disease. This bacterium can also be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy and infect the eyes causing conjunctivitis. The genital infection causes urethritis, epididymitis and prostatitis in males and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) in females with an increased risk of contracting HIV. Transmission of the bacteria occurs via contact with infected bodily fluids which then infect mucosal membranes.

Chlamydophila pneumonia: is a etiologic agent of respiratory tract infection, mainly pneumonia. C.pneumoniae is the causative agent of an atypical pneumonia (walking pneumonia) similar to those caused by Mycoplasma pneumonia and Legionella pneumonia. Chlamydophila pneumonia can cause bronchitis, sinusitis, pneumonia and possibly atherosclerosis. The organism is transmitted person- to-person by respiratory droplets and causes bronchitis, sinusitis and pneumonia.

Chlamydia psittaci: causes psittacosis, and occasionally conjuctivitis and myocarditis in man, and infection associated with abortion, arthritis, conjuctivitis, encephalomyelitis and enteritis. Infection is usually asymptomatic. Mild flu-like illness and Reactive arthritis may appear. Human infection with C. psittaci usually occurs when a person inhales organisms that have been aerosolized from dried feces or respiratory tract secretions of infected birds.

Method Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
Swab / Secretion (Respiratory), Swab / Secretion (Conjunctival), Stool, EDTA blood, Culture, Tissue, CSF.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPC-032
Description Clostridium perfringens (formerly known as C. welchii, or Bacillus welchii) is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming pathogenic bacterium of the genus Clostridium. C. perfringens is ever present in nature and can be found as a normal component of decaying vegetation, marine sediment, the intestinal tract of humans and other vertebrates, insects, and soil. It has the shortest reported generation time of any organism at 6.3 minutes in thioglycollate medium.

Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) is one of the most common causes of food poisoning. Cooking kills the growing C. perfringens cells that cause food poisoning, but not necessarily the spores that can grow into new cells. If cooked food is not promptly served or refrigerated, the spores can grow and produce new cells. These bacteria thrive between 40-140°F (the Danger Zone). This means that they grow quickly at room temperature, but they cannot grow at refrigerator or freezer temperatures. Since C. perfringens forms spores that can withstand cooking temperatures, if cooked food is let stand for long enough, germination can ensue and infective bacterial colonies develop. Symptoms typically include abdominal cramping, diarrhea; vomiting and fever are usual. The whole course usually resolves within 24 hours. Very rare, fatal cases of clostridial necrotizing enteritis (also known as pigbel) have been known to involve "Type C" strains of the organism, which produce a potently ulcerative beta-toxin.

This assay can detect alpha, beta-2, epsilon, iota and enterotoxin.

Method Multi Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
Stool, Swab / Secretion (Rectal), Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

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Validated
Assay Code HPC-033
Description Coxiella burnetii is a gram negative coccobacillus that causes Q-Fever disease in animals and humans. It belongs to a group of organisms known as Rickettsia. The organism may be found in the birth products (i.e. placenta, amniotic fluid), urine, feces, and milk of infected animals.

In humans, Q Fever is generally a self-limiting illness. People get infected by breathing in dust that has been contaminated by infected animal feces, urine, milk, and birth products that contain Coxiella burnetii. Direct contact (e.g. touching, being licked) with an animal is not required to become sick with Q fever. People may also get sick with Q fever by eating contaminated, unpasteurized dairy products. Rarely, Q fever has been spread through blood transfusion, from a pregnant woman to her fetus, or through sex.

This assay is used for the detection of both C. burnetti and C. symbiont; however, it cannot be used to differentiate between the two subtypes

Pathogens Tested
  • Coxiella burnetti
  • Coxiella symbiont;

Method Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
EDTA blood, Tissue (placental), Culture, Milk, Stool, Urine, Amniotic fluid.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool should be transported to MBG Lab within 24h of collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days. Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPG-073
Description STD Panel is an in vitro test for the detection of viral and bacterial DNA as an aid in the Evaluation of infections by Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrheae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Herpes simplex virus 1 & 2, Treponema pallidum. These infections are sexually transmitted and can be life threatening if left untreated.

To prevent getting a sexually transmitted disease, or STD, always avoid sex with anyone who has genital sores, a rash, discharge, or other symptoms. Use of barrier devices during intercourse can prevent the spread of STD.

Pathogens TestedChlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacteria commonly causing sexually transmitted disease that can lead to infertility. Usually asymptomatic in women, some develop pelvic inflammatory disease, unusual vaginal bleeding or discharge. In males symptoms such as infectious urethritis, painful or burning sensation when urinating, an unusual discharge from the penis, swollen or tender testicles, or fever are seen. Occasionally infection may spread to the epididymis (storage tubes for sperm overlying the testes in the testicle), which can be very painful and may lead to infertility. Chlamydia can also be passed from an infected mother to her baby during vaginal childbirth.

Neisseria gonorrhoeae - Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as gonococci, is a species of Gram-negative bacteria responsible for the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea in both men and women. Often, gonorrhea has no symptoms. Most people are not aware that they have the infection - especially women. Some women may have symptoms such as vaginal discharge, lower abdominal pain or pain with intercourse. If left untreated it can lead to long term complication such as pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy and infertility. Most men who are infected have symptoms such as urethritis associated with burning with urination and discharge from the penis. In both men and women if gonorrhea is left untreated, it may spread locally causing epididymitis throughout the body, affecting joints and heart valves. Gonorrhea can also be passed from a woman to her fetus during birth.

Mycoplasma genitalium - Mycoplasma genitalium is a small parasitic bacterium which lives on cilated epithelial cells of the genital tract and is sexually transmitted. In women, symptoms such as vaginal itching, burning while urinating, discharge, pain during intercourse may appear. In the long term, this infection is suspected to cause pelvic inflammatory disease and cervicitis. In men it is a major agent in urogenital tract disease.

Herpes simplex virus 1 & 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), also known as Human herpes virus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and -2), are two members of the herpes virus family, Herpesviridae, that cause genital ulcers. HSV is a sexually transmitted disease. HSV-1 is associated with many clinical manifestations including gingivostomatitis, eye infections, and various skin complications including cold sores, whitlow and super infection of eczema. HSV-2 is sexually transmitted and produces painful sores, usually in the genital area.HSV can also cause meningitis or encephalitis. Sometimes genital herpes infection can lead to miscarriage or premature birth. Herpes infection can be passed from mother to child resulting in a potentially fatal infection (neonatal herpes).

Treponema pallidum is a spirochaete bacterium with subspecies that cause treponemal diseases such as syphilis, bejel, pinta which spread through close sexual contact. Syphilis is a highly contagious disease spread primarily by sexual activity. The bacteria pass through intact mucous membranes and abraded skin; they are then carried by the blood stream to every organ in the body. The symptoms of syphilis depend on the stage of the disease. Many people do not have symptoms. In general, painless sores and swollen lymph nodes are possible symptoms of primary syphilis. Those with secondary syphilis may also have fever, fatigue, rash, aches and pains, and loss of appetite, among other symptoms. Tertiary syphilis causes heart, brain, and nervous system problems. The organism can also be transmitted to a fetus by transplacental passage during the later stages of pregnancy, giving rise to congenital syphilis.

Method Real-Time PCR
Sample Type
Swab / Secretion (Genital) , Swab / Secretion (Rectal), Swab / Secretion (Abscess), Urine.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Please, contact MBG Lab for more information

Validated
Assay Code See Below
Description Legionella is a pathogenic group of gram negative bacterium. It thrives in central heating and air conditioning systems. Legionella pneumophila is the primary human pathogenic bacterium and is the causative agent of legionellosis or Legionnaires disease. Legionella pneumophila invades and replicates in macrophages. Patients with Legionnaires disease usually have pneumonia, fever, chills, and a cough, which may be dry or may produce sputum. Some patients also have muscle aches, headache, tiredness, loss of appetite, loss of coordination (ataxia), and occasionally diarrhoea and vomiting. Confusion and impaired cognition and low normal heart rate may also occur. Test may reveal the patient's renal functions, liver functions and electrolytes are deranged, including hyponatremia. It is not transmitted from person to person. It is transmitted by inhalation of aerosolized water and/or soil contaminated with the bacteria.

Legionella longbeachae causes Pontiac fever. Pontiac fever is an acute, non-fatal respiratory disease that causes a mild upper respiratory infection. Symptoms can include fever, headaches and muscle aches but unlike Legionnaires' disease Pontiac Fever does not cause pneumonia. Like other Legionella species, person-to-person transmission has not been documented. However, unlike other species the primary transmission mode is inhalation of dust from contaminated compost or soil that contains the organism causing legionellosis.

Pathogens Tested
  • HPL-034 : Legionella pneumophila (This assay includes the detection of Legionella species and subtype Legionella pneumophila.)
  • HPL-035 : Legionella Species (This assay includes the detection of Legionella species. This Assay can detect Legionella pneumophila, L. adelaidensis, L. anisa, L. birminghamensis, L. bozemanii , L. brunensis, L. cherii , L. cincinnatiensis, L. dumoffii, L. erythra , L. feelei, L. gormanii, L. gratiana, L. hackeliae, L.israelensis, L. jamestownensis, L. jordanis, L. lansingensis, L. longbeachae, L. maceachernii , L. micdadei , L. moravica, L. oakridgensis paucimobilis , L. parisiensis, L. quinlivanii, L. rubrilucens, L. sainthelensis, L. spiritensis, L. steigerwaltii , L. taurinensis, L. tucsonensis, L. wadsworthii)

Method Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
Water, Swab / Secretion (Respiratory), Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

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Validated
Assay Code HPL-036
Description Leptospirosis is a transmissible disease of animals and humans caused by infection with any of the pathogenic members of the genus Leptospira. It is considered the most common zoonosis in the world and is associated with rodents in settings of poor sanitation, agricultural occupations, and increasingly "adventure" sports or races involving fresh water, mud, or soil exposure. Humans can become infected through: Contact with urine (or other body fluids, except saliva) from infected animals. Contact with water, soil, or food contaminated with the urine of infected animals. The bacteria can enter the body through skin or mucous membranes (eyes, nose, or mouth), especially if the skin is broken from a cut or scratch. Drinking contaminated water can also cause infection. Outbreaks of leptospirosis are usually caused by exposure to contaminated water, such as floodwaters. Person to person transmission is rare.

Method Real-Time PCR
Sample Type
EDTA blood, Swab / Secretion (Organ), Tissue, Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code See Below
Description Mycobacterium is a genus of Actinobacteria, family Mycobacteriaceae. Over 190 species are recognized in this genus. This genus includes pathogens known to cause serious diseases in mammals, including tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and leprosy (Mycobacterium leprae) in humans. Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic disease of animals and humans caused by Mycobacterium bovis.

Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria usually attack the lungs, but TB bacteria can attack any part of the body such as the kidney, spine, and brain. Not everyone infected with TB bacteria becomes sick. As a result, two TB-related conditions exist: latent TB infection (LTBI) and TB disease. If not treated properly, TB disease can be fatal. There are two kinds of tests that are used to detect TB bacteria in the body: the TB skin test (TST) and TB blood tests. A positive TB skin test or TB blood test only tells that a person has been infected with TB bacteria. It does not tell whether the person has latent TB infection (LTBI) or has progressed to TB disease. Other tests, such as a chest x-ray and a sample of sputum, are needed to see whether the person has TB disease.

Pathogens Tested
  • HPM-038 : Mycobacterium species (This assay includes the detection of Mycobacterium species. This assay can detect M. austroafricanum, M.avium subsp. avium,M.bovis BCG, M.chelonae, M.gordonae, M.fortuitum subsp.fortuitum, M.insubricum, M.intracellulare, M.kansasii, M.marium, M.mucogenicum, M.peregrinum, M.porcinum, M.scrofulaceum, M.setense, M.simiae, M.smegmatis, M.terrae, M.tuberculosis, M.ulcerans, M.xenopi)
  • HPM-100 : Mycobacterium tuberculosis (This assay includes the detection of Mycobacterium species and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.)

Method Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
EDTA blood, Blood on FTA card, Stool, Swab / Secretion (Respiratory), Tissue, Culture, CSF, Urine (for urinary TB).
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool should be transported to MBG Lab within 24h of collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPM-041
Description Mycoplasma refers to a genus of bacteria that are the smallest living cells known. They can be parasitic or saprotrophic.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae causes the disease mycoplasma pneumonia, a form of atypical bacterial pneumonia, and is related to cold agglutinin disease. It is also referred to as walking pneumonia. Symptoms include cough that may come in violent spasms but produce very little mucus, mild flu-like symptoms such as fever and chills, sore throat, headache, tiredness malaise and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). It is spread by contact with droplets from nose and throat of an infected person.

Mycoplasma genitalium is a small parasitic bacterium that lives on cilated epithelial cells of the genital tract and is sexually transmitted. In women symptoms such as vaginal itching, burning while urinating, discharge, pain during intercourse may appear. In the long term, this infection is suspected to cause pelvic inflammatory disease and cervicitis. In men, it is a major agent in urogenital tract disease.

Pathogens TestedThis assay can detect many Mycoplasma species including Mycoplasma agassizii,Mycoplasma anatis, Mycoplasma anseris, Mycoplasma arginini,Mycoplasma arthritidis,Mycoplasma auris, Mycoplasma buccale, Mycoplasma canadense,Mycoplasma cloacale,Mycoplasma collis, Mycoplasma columborale, Mycoplasma cricetuli, Mycoplasma cynos,Mycoplasma falconis,Mycoplasma faucium, Mycoplasma felis, Mycoplasma gateae,Mycoplasma gypis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma hyopharyngis, Mycoplasma hyorhinis,Mycoplasma hyosynoviae, Mycoplasma iguana, Mycoplasma lagogenitalium, Mycoplasma leonicaptivi, Mycoplasma molare, Mycoplasma mustelae, Mycoplasma neophronis,Mycoplasma neurolyticum, Mycoplasma orale, Mycoplasma phocicerebrale, Mycoplasma phocidae, Mycoplasma salivarium, Mycoplasma spumans, Mycoplasma timone, and Mycoplasma zalophi .

The assay cannot detect Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma pulmonis.

Method Real-Time PCR
Sample Type
Tissue, EDTA blood, Swab/ Secretion (Respiratory), Swab / Secretion (Conjunctival), Swab/ Secretion (Genital), CSF, Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links