Molecular Biology & Genetics Laboratory

Pathogen Identification


Molecular based methods have advanced the laboratory testing to faster and better diagnostics. PCR methods, microarray and next generation sequencing have provided speed and high level of accuracy. Molecular biology based methods are sensitive and quick to detect microbial pathogens in various clinical specimens. We offer molecular detection of pathogenic viruses, bacteria and parasites from clinical specimens. MBG Lab is ISO 15189 accredited and benefits from a stand-alone containment Level 3 facility where samples for highly contagious pathogen are received and processed.


All Bacteria Virus Fungi Parasite


Validated
Assay Code HPG-076
Description Viral gastroenteritis is an in vitro test for the qualitative detection of virus nucleic acid in stool samples as an aid to the evaluation of infections with norovirus G1, norovirus G2, astrovirus, rotavirus, adenovirus and sapovirus.

Pathogens TestedNoroviruses (NoroG1 and NoroG2) are single-stranded RNA viruses without an outer envelope. They are an important cause of sporadic cases and outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. They infect all age groups, with particularly severe disease occurring in young children, elderly patients, and persons with preexisting conditions. The incubation time is approximately 24hrs and individuals can shed the viruses in faeces for up to 2 weeks after the infection. They can survive outside of a person on surfaces for several days. Their mode of transmission may be foodborne, waterborne or person-to-person contact via virus containing aerosols and the faecal- oral route. Less than 20 virus particles can be infectious. There is no therapy available.

Rotaviruses (Rota) carry dsRNA encapsulated in a complex virus particle and are the most common cause of severe, dehydrating, gastroenteritis among children worldwide. Infections in adults and the elderly are less frequent but have been documented. Rotavirus has a short incubation period of 1 to 3 days. The virus is shed in faeces for an average for 4 days although excretion of virus for up to 30 days has been reported in immunocompromised patients. The mode of transmission can be faecal-oral, through contaminated water and food. As little as 10 virus particles can cause an infection. Different vaccines are on the market.

Astroviruses (Astro) are a significant cause of acute gastroenteritis, resulting in outbreaks of diarrhea. The virus nucleic acid consists of non-encapsulated ssRNA. Most infections are mild and self limiting, however, the most severe affected group are children under the age of 2 years. Studies implement that the incidence of Astrovirus infections are highly underestimated based on the lack of reliable diagnostic methods. It is suggested that Astrovirus ranks second place after Rotavirus in gastorenteritis in children. Transmission occurs usually from person to person. Symptoms manifest within 2 to 3 days post-infection and last for a few days. Outbreaks usually appear in the winter and spring within the temperate climate zones.

Adenoviruses (HAdV) consist of non-enveloped dsDNA and are a common cause of respiratory illness. The symptoms can range from the common cold to pneumonia, croup, and bronchitis. Depending on the type, adenoviruses can cause other illnesses such as gastroenteritis, conjunctivitis, cystitis, and less commonly, neurological diseases. Adenoviral infections affect infants and young children much more frequently than adults. Severe, disseminated infection can occur in immunocompromised subjects. Adenoviruses are responsible for 15% of children that are hospitalized with gastroenteritis.

Sapoviruses (Sapo) are single-stranded non-enveloped RNA viruses belonging to the Caliciviridae family. Sapo were first detected in 1977 as the cause of a gastroenteritis outbreak in a home for infants in Sapporo, Japan. Sapo is increasingly recognized to be associated with sporadic gastroenteritis in infants and adults in the community, hospitals and other health care facilities. Although Sapo-associated diarrhea is generally mild, severe cases can occur. Transmission occurs via fecal-oral route and consumption of contaminated food. Human Sapo strains cannot be reliably cultivated in vitro, and currently, RT-PCR is the most widely used method for their detection.

Method Real-Time RT-PCR
Sample Type
Stool.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool should be transported to MBG Lab within 24h of collection.
Specimens must be sent in RNA Preservative media. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPM-077
Description Viral meningitis is an infection of the meninges (a thin lining covering the brain and spinal cord) by any one of a number of different viruses. Viral meningitis is also often referred to as aseptic meningitis. The symptoms may include fever, headache, stiff neck and fatigue. Rash, sore throat and intestinal symptoms may also occur.The most common viruses to cause viral meningitis are enteroviruses (intestinal), mumps, arboviruses, herpes family viruses, varicella viruses, Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, Adenovirus. Because a number of different viruses are capable of causing viral meningitis, the manner in which the virus is spread depends upon the type of virus involved. Some are spread by person-to-person contact; others can be spread by insects.

Pathogens TestedHerpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV1 and HSV2), are two members of the herpesviridae family. They contain a large double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome. Primary Herpes simplex infection is usually acquired in childhood and is most often asymptomatic; after the primary infection, the virus becomes latent in neurons of cranial nerve ganglia (HSV1) or sacral ganglia (HSV2). Reactivation from ganglia produces cold sores or fever blisters in the mouth or on the lip, less often infections of the eye (herpes keratitis), and rarely encephalitis. Symptomatic HSV1 infections are usually manifested as recurrent orolabial and facial lesions. HSV2 is the cause of most genital herpes and is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Herpes can be spread, regardless of symptoms, between sexual partners and from mother to newborn, and is known to increase a persons risk of contracting HIV. Herpes viruses establish lifelong infections, and the virus cannot be eradicated from the body.

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a alphaherpesvirus, contains a large double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Unlike HSV1, it is often asymptomatic in primary infections. Primary VZV infection can result in chickenpox (varicella) characterized by malaise, fever and an extensive vesicular rash which can lead to pneumonia in adults, particularly in pregnant woman. Even after clinical symptoms of varicella have resolved, VZV remains dormant in the nervous system of the host in the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia. In about 10-20% of cases, VZV reactivates later in life producing a disease known as herpes zoster or shingles. Serious complications of shingles include post-herpetic neuralgia, myelitis, eye infections or zoster sine herpete.

Enteroviruses (EV) are a genus of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses including polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and other enteroviruses. Non-polio enteroviruses are very common. They are second only to the "common cold" viruses, rhinoviruses, as the most common viral infectious agents in humans. EV is most likely to occur during the summer and fall. EV affects millions of people worldwide each year, and are often found in the respiratory secretions (e.g., saliva, sputum, or nasal mucus) and stool of an infected person.

Human parechoviruses (HPeV) are positive ssRNA viruses and are prevalent in young children. They have been associated with respiratory disease, including upper and lower respiratory tract disease. It has also been claimed that they commonly cause mild gastroenteritis and, less frequently, meningitis and neonatal sepsis.

Mumps virus (MV), a member of the paramyxovirus family, is a negative-strand RNA virus. The incubation period of mumps is 14 to 18 days. Mumps infection results in an acute illness with symptoms including fever, headache, and myalgia, followed by swelling of the salivary glands. As many as 20% of mumps infections are asymptomatic. Complications of mumps can include meningitis, deafness, pancreatitis, orchitis, and first-trimester abortion. A vaccine for mumps is available in combination with measles and rubella vaccines, or in combination with measles, rubella and varicella.

Method Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
CSF, Culture, EDTA Blood, Stool.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool should be transported to MBG Lab within 24h of collection.
Specimens must be sent in RNA Preservative media. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links




Molecular Biology & Genetics Laboratory

Pathogen Identification


Molecular based methods have advanced the laboratory testing to faster and better diagnostics. PCR methods, microarray and next generation sequencing have provided speed and high level of accuracy. Molecular biology based methods are sensitive and quick to detect microbial pathogens in various clinical specimens. We offer molecular detection of pathogenic viruses, bacteria and parasites from clinical specimens. MBG Lab is ISO 15189 accredited and benefits from a stand-alone containment Level 3 facility where samples for highly contagious pathogen are received and processed.


All Bacteria Virus Fungi Parasite


Validated
Assay Code HPG-076
Description Viral gastroenteritis is an in vitro test for the qualitative detection of virus nucleic acid in stool samples as an aid to the evaluation of infections with norovirus G1, norovirus G2, astrovirus, rotavirus, adenovirus and sapovirus.

Pathogens TestedNoroviruses (NoroG1 and NoroG2) are single-stranded RNA viruses without an outer envelope. They are an important cause of sporadic cases and outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. They infect all age groups, with particularly severe disease occurring in young children, elderly patients, and persons with preexisting conditions. The incubation time is approximately 24hrs and individuals can shed the viruses in faeces for up to 2 weeks after the infection. They can survive outside of a person on surfaces for several days. Their mode of transmission may be foodborne, waterborne or person-to-person contact via virus containing aerosols and the faecal- oral route. Less than 20 virus particles can be infectious. There is no therapy available.

Rotaviruses (Rota) carry dsRNA encapsulated in a complex virus particle and are the most common cause of severe, dehydrating, gastroenteritis among children worldwide. Infections in adults and the elderly are less frequent but have been documented. Rotavirus has a short incubation period of 1 to 3 days. The virus is shed in faeces for an average for 4 days although excretion of virus for up to 30 days has been reported in immunocompromised patients. The mode of transmission can be faecal-oral, through contaminated water and food. As little as 10 virus particles can cause an infection. Different vaccines are on the market.

Astroviruses (Astro) are a significant cause of acute gastroenteritis, resulting in outbreaks of diarrhea. The virus nucleic acid consists of non-encapsulated ssRNA. Most infections are mild and self limiting, however, the most severe affected group are children under the age of 2 years. Studies implement that the incidence of Astrovirus infections are highly underestimated based on the lack of reliable diagnostic methods. It is suggested that Astrovirus ranks second place after Rotavirus in gastorenteritis in children. Transmission occurs usually from person to person. Symptoms manifest within 2 to 3 days post-infection and last for a few days. Outbreaks usually appear in the winter and spring within the temperate climate zones.

Adenoviruses (HAdV) consist of non-enveloped dsDNA and are a common cause of respiratory illness. The symptoms can range from the common cold to pneumonia, croup, and bronchitis. Depending on the type, adenoviruses can cause other illnesses such as gastroenteritis, conjunctivitis, cystitis, and less commonly, neurological diseases. Adenoviral infections affect infants and young children much more frequently than adults. Severe, disseminated infection can occur in immunocompromised subjects. Adenoviruses are responsible for 15% of children that are hospitalized with gastroenteritis.

Sapoviruses (Sapo) are single-stranded non-enveloped RNA viruses belonging to the Caliciviridae family. Sapo were first detected in 1977 as the cause of a gastroenteritis outbreak in a home for infants in Sapporo, Japan. Sapo is increasingly recognized to be associated with sporadic gastroenteritis in infants and adults in the community, hospitals and other health care facilities. Although Sapo-associated diarrhea is generally mild, severe cases can occur. Transmission occurs via fecal-oral route and consumption of contaminated food. Human Sapo strains cannot be reliably cultivated in vitro, and currently, RT-PCR is the most widely used method for their detection.

Method Real-Time RT-PCR
Sample Type
Stool.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool should be transported to MBG Lab within 24h of collection.
Specimens must be sent in RNA Preservative media. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPM-077
Description Viral meningitis is an infection of the meninges (a thin lining covering the brain and spinal cord) by any one of a number of different viruses. Viral meningitis is also often referred to as aseptic meningitis. The symptoms may include fever, headache, stiff neck and fatigue. Rash, sore throat and intestinal symptoms may also occur.The most common viruses to cause viral meningitis are enteroviruses (intestinal), mumps, arboviruses, herpes family viruses, varicella viruses, Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, Adenovirus. Because a number of different viruses are capable of causing viral meningitis, the manner in which the virus is spread depends upon the type of virus involved. Some are spread by person-to-person contact; others can be spread by insects.

Pathogens TestedHerpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV1 and HSV2), are two members of the herpesviridae family. They contain a large double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome. Primary Herpes simplex infection is usually acquired in childhood and is most often asymptomatic; after the primary infection, the virus becomes latent in neurons of cranial nerve ganglia (HSV1) or sacral ganglia (HSV2). Reactivation from ganglia produces cold sores or fever blisters in the mouth or on the lip, less often infections of the eye (herpes keratitis), and rarely encephalitis. Symptomatic HSV1 infections are usually manifested as recurrent orolabial and facial lesions. HSV2 is the cause of most genital herpes and is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Herpes can be spread, regardless of symptoms, between sexual partners and from mother to newborn, and is known to increase a persons risk of contracting HIV. Herpes viruses establish lifelong infections, and the virus cannot be eradicated from the body.

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a alphaherpesvirus, contains a large double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Unlike HSV1, it is often asymptomatic in primary infections. Primary VZV infection can result in chickenpox (varicella) characterized by malaise, fever and an extensive vesicular rash which can lead to pneumonia in adults, particularly in pregnant woman. Even after clinical symptoms of varicella have resolved, VZV remains dormant in the nervous system of the host in the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia. In about 10-20% of cases, VZV reactivates later in life producing a disease known as herpes zoster or shingles. Serious complications of shingles include post-herpetic neuralgia, myelitis, eye infections or zoster sine herpete.

Enteroviruses (EV) are a genus of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses including polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and other enteroviruses. Non-polio enteroviruses are very common. They are second only to the "common cold" viruses, rhinoviruses, as the most common viral infectious agents in humans. EV is most likely to occur during the summer and fall. EV affects millions of people worldwide each year, and are often found in the respiratory secretions (e.g., saliva, sputum, or nasal mucus) and stool of an infected person.

Human parechoviruses (HPeV) are positive ssRNA viruses and are prevalent in young children. They have been associated with respiratory disease, including upper and lower respiratory tract disease. It has also been claimed that they commonly cause mild gastroenteritis and, less frequently, meningitis and neonatal sepsis.

Mumps virus (MV), a member of the paramyxovirus family, is a negative-strand RNA virus. The incubation period of mumps is 14 to 18 days. Mumps infection results in an acute illness with symptoms including fever, headache, and myalgia, followed by swelling of the salivary glands. As many as 20% of mumps infections are asymptomatic. Complications of mumps can include meningitis, deafness, pancreatitis, orchitis, and first-trimester abortion. A vaccine for mumps is available in combination with measles and rubella vaccines, or in combination with measles, rubella and varicella.

Method Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
CSF, Culture, EDTA Blood, Stool.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool should be transported to MBG Lab within 24h of collection.
Specimens must be sent in RNA Preservative media. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links