Molecular Biology & Genetics Laboratory

Pathogen Identification


Molecular based methods have advanced the laboratory testing to faster and better diagnostics. PCR methods, microarray and next generation sequencing have provided speed and high level of accuracy. Molecular biology based methods are sensitive and quick to detect microbial pathogens in various clinical specimens. We offer molecular detection of pathogenic viruses, bacteria and parasites from clinical specimens. MBG Lab is ISO 15189 accredited and benefits from a stand-alone containment Level 3 facility where samples for highly contagious pathogen are received and processed.


All Bacteria Virus Fungi Parasite


Accredited
Assay Code See Below
Description There are three types of influenza viruses: A, B, and C. Influenza A viruses are members of the family Orthomyxoviridae and are further classified by subtype on the basis of the two main surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA).
There are 18 different hemagglutinin subtypes H1- H18 and 11 different neuraminidase subtypes ( N1- N11). These two glycoproteins both recognize the sialic acid and have complementary activities, the HA binds the sialic acid through its receptor-binding site, the NA is a receptor-destroying enzyme that cleaves 2-3 and 2-6-linked sialic acids. Therefore, the functional HA/NA balance is a critical factor for a good viral fitness and plays a major role in overcoming the host barrier and the efficiency of sustained human-to-human transmission.

Influenza A (FluA) is associated with acute respiratory infections of varying severity, ranging from asymptomatic infection to fatal disease. Typical influenza symptoms include fever, sore throat, cough, headache and myalgia. Complications include primary influenza viral pneumonitis, bacterial pneumonia and exacerbation of underlying chronic conditions. Illness tends to be most severe in the elderly, in infants and young children, and in the immunocompromised. The swine-lineage influenza A virus subtype H1N1 A(H1N1)swl) was reported in spring 2009. In June 2009, the WHO declared an H1N1 pandemic, moving the alert level to phase 6, marking the first global pandemic since the 1968 Hong Kong flu. Influenza B (FluB) viruses cause the same spectrum of disease as influenza A. However, Influenza B is less common than influenza A and does not cause pandemics.

Influenza is transmitted through the air by coughs or sneezes, creating aerosols containing the virus. Annual immunization is strongly recommended for older people, pregnant women, those at risk and those who work or live with vulnerable groups. There are nine known subtypes of H5 viruses (H5N1, H5N2, H5N3, H5N4, H5N5, H5N6, H5N7, H5N8, and H5N9).The first confirmed human case of infection with the highly pathogenic H5N1 strain of AIV was reported in Hong Kong in 1997, the first recognized case of virus transmission directly from poultry to humans; a second outbreak of H5N1 viruses occurred in 2003, and continuing occurrences have been reported (Yamaji et al., 2015).
Sporadic H5 virus infection of humans has occurred, such as with Asian lineage HPAI (highly pathogenic) H5N1 viruses currently circulating among poultry in Asia and the Middle East. Human infection of H5N1 virus infections have been reported in 16 countries, often resulting in severe pneumonia and greater than 50% mortality. Asian HPAI H5N1 viruses have infected the respiratory tract of humans, causing severe illness (e.g. pneumonia and respiratory failure) and death in some people.

There are nine known subtypes of H7 viruses (H7N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N4, H7N5, H7N6, H7N7, H7N8, and H7N9). H7 virus infection in humans is uncommon. The most frequently identified H7 viruses associated with human infection are Asian lineage avian influenza A(H7N9) viruses, which were first detected in China in 2013. While human infections are rare, these have commonly resulted in severe respiratory illness and death. In addition to Asian lineage H7N9 viruses, H7N2, H7N3, H7N7 virus infections have been reported. These viruses have primarily caused mild to moderate illness in people, with symptoms that include conjunctivitis and/or upper respiratory tract symptoms.

There are nine known subtypes of H9 viruses (H9N1, H9N2, H9N3, H9N4, H9N5, H9N6, H9N7, H9N8, and H9N9). All H9 viruses identified worldwide in wild birds and poultry are LPAI viruses (low pathogenicity). LPAI viruses are usually associated with mild disease in poultry. H9N2 virus has been detected in bird populations in Asia, Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Rare, sporadic H9N2 virus infections in people have been reported to generally cause mild upper respiratory tract illness.


Pathogens Tested
  • HPI-070 : Influenza Panel
  • HPI-017 : Influenza N1
  • HPH-016 : Influenza H5
  • HPH-015 : Influenza H7
  • HPH-014 : Influenza H9

Method Real-Time RT PCR
Sample Type
Nasopharyngeal /throat swab (2 swabs), Nasal aspirate, Nasal wash, Broncheoalveolar lavage, Sputum, Bronchial wash, Tracheal aspirate, Lung tissue, Viral culture.
Specimens must be sent in RNA Preservative media.
Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT. Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.

Links




Molecular Biology & Genetics Laboratory

Pathogen Identification


Molecular based methods have advanced the laboratory testing to faster and better diagnostics. PCR methods, microarray and next generation sequencing have provided speed and high level of accuracy. Molecular biology based methods are sensitive and quick to detect microbial pathogens in various clinical specimens. We offer molecular detection of pathogenic viruses, bacteria and parasites from clinical specimens. MBG Lab is ISO 15189 accredited and benefits from a stand-alone containment Level 3 facility where samples for highly contagious pathogen are received and processed.


All Bacteria Virus Fungi Parasite


Accredited
Assay Code See Below
Description There are three types of influenza viruses: A, B, and C. Influenza A viruses are members of the family Orthomyxoviridae and are further classified by subtype on the basis of the two main surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA).
There are 18 different hemagglutinin subtypes H1- H18 and 11 different neuraminidase subtypes ( N1- N11). These two glycoproteins both recognize the sialic acid and have complementary activities, the HA binds the sialic acid through its receptor-binding site, the NA is a receptor-destroying enzyme that cleaves 2-3 and 2-6-linked sialic acids. Therefore, the functional HA/NA balance is a critical factor for a good viral fitness and plays a major role in overcoming the host barrier and the efficiency of sustained human-to-human transmission.

Influenza A (FluA) is associated with acute respiratory infections of varying severity, ranging from asymptomatic infection to fatal disease. Typical influenza symptoms include fever, sore throat, cough, headache and myalgia. Complications include primary influenza viral pneumonitis, bacterial pneumonia and exacerbation of underlying chronic conditions. Illness tends to be most severe in the elderly, in infants and young children, and in the immunocompromised. The swine-lineage influenza A virus subtype H1N1 A(H1N1)swl) was reported in spring 2009. In June 2009, the WHO declared an H1N1 pandemic, moving the alert level to phase 6, marking the first global pandemic since the 1968 Hong Kong flu. Influenza B (FluB) viruses cause the same spectrum of disease as influenza A. However, Influenza B is less common than influenza A and does not cause pandemics.

Influenza is transmitted through the air by coughs or sneezes, creating aerosols containing the virus. Annual immunization is strongly recommended for older people, pregnant women, those at risk and those who work or live with vulnerable groups. There are nine known subtypes of H5 viruses (H5N1, H5N2, H5N3, H5N4, H5N5, H5N6, H5N7, H5N8, and H5N9).The first confirmed human case of infection with the highly pathogenic H5N1 strain of AIV was reported in Hong Kong in 1997, the first recognized case of virus transmission directly from poultry to humans; a second outbreak of H5N1 viruses occurred in 2003, and continuing occurrences have been reported (Yamaji et al., 2015).
Sporadic H5 virus infection of humans has occurred, such as with Asian lineage HPAI (highly pathogenic) H5N1 viruses currently circulating among poultry in Asia and the Middle East. Human infection of H5N1 virus infections have been reported in 16 countries, often resulting in severe pneumonia and greater than 50% mortality. Asian HPAI H5N1 viruses have infected the respiratory tract of humans, causing severe illness (e.g. pneumonia and respiratory failure) and death in some people.

There are nine known subtypes of H7 viruses (H7N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N4, H7N5, H7N6, H7N7, H7N8, and H7N9). H7 virus infection in humans is uncommon. The most frequently identified H7 viruses associated with human infection are Asian lineage avian influenza A(H7N9) viruses, which were first detected in China in 2013. While human infections are rare, these have commonly resulted in severe respiratory illness and death. In addition to Asian lineage H7N9 viruses, H7N2, H7N3, H7N7 virus infections have been reported. These viruses have primarily caused mild to moderate illness in people, with symptoms that include conjunctivitis and/or upper respiratory tract symptoms.

There are nine known subtypes of H9 viruses (H9N1, H9N2, H9N3, H9N4, H9N5, H9N6, H9N7, H9N8, and H9N9). All H9 viruses identified worldwide in wild birds and poultry are LPAI viruses (low pathogenicity). LPAI viruses are usually associated with mild disease in poultry. H9N2 virus has been detected in bird populations in Asia, Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Rare, sporadic H9N2 virus infections in people have been reported to generally cause mild upper respiratory tract illness.


Pathogens Tested
  • HPI-070 : Influenza Panel
  • HPI-017 : Influenza N1
  • HPH-016 : Influenza H5
  • HPH-015 : Influenza H7
  • HPH-014 : Influenza H9

Method Real-Time RT PCR
Sample Type
Nasopharyngeal /throat swab (2 swabs), Nasal aspirate, Nasal wash, Broncheoalveolar lavage, Sputum, Bronchial wash, Tracheal aspirate, Lung tissue, Viral culture.
Specimens must be sent in RNA Preservative media.
Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT. Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.

Links