Molecular Biology & Genetics Laboratory

Pathogen Identification


Molecular based methods have advanced the laboratory testing to faster and better diagnostics. PCR methods, microarray and next generation sequencing have provided speed and high level of accuracy. Molecular biology based methods are sensitive and quick to detect microbial pathogens in various clinical specimens. We offer molecular detection of pathogenic viruses, bacteria and parasites from clinical specimens. MBG Lab is ISO 15189 accredited and benefits from a stand-alone containment Level 3 facility where samples for highly contagious pathogen are received and processed.


All Bacteria Virus Fungi Parasite


Validated
Assay Code See Below
Description Campylobacteriosis is a bacterial disease caused by Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. Campylobacter usually causes a mild to severe infection of the gastrointestinal system, including watery or bloody diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting. Sometimes animals can spread Campylobacter to humans. Most people get campylobacteriosis from contaminated food. However, animals can have Campylobacter in their feces (stool). If people touch contaminated feces, they can get sick. Animals that may carry Campylobacter in their feces include farm animals, cats, and dogs. Animals do not have to be ill to pass Campylobacter to humans. People with compromised immune systems, including those undergoing treatments for cancer, organ transplant patients, and people with HIV/AIDS, have a higher risk than others of getting Campylobacter infection from food and animals.

Pathogens Tested
  • HPC-029 : Campylobacter coli
  • HPC-028 : Campylobacter jejuni

Method Real -Time PCR.
Sample Type
Culture , Stool, Swab/ Secretion (Rectal).
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool should be transported to MBG Lab within 24h of collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days. Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPC-191
Description Chikungunya virus is most often spread to people by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. It is rarely transmitted from mother to newborn around the time of birth. Prior to 2013, Chikungunya virus cases and outbreaks had been identified in countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific Oceans. In late 2013, the first local transmission of chikungunya virus in the Americas was identified in Caribbean countries and territories. Local transmission means that mosquitoes in the area have been infected with the virus and are spreading it to people. Symptoms usually begin 3-7 days after being bitten by an infected mosquito. The most common symptoms of infection are fever and joint pain. Other symptoms may include headache, muscle pain, joint swelling or rash. There is no vaccine to prevent or medicine to treat chikungunya virus infection. Travelers can protect themselves by preventing mosquito bites. During the first 8 days of illness, chikungunya viral RNA can often be identified in serum.

Dengue viruses are spread to people through the bite of an infected Aedes species (Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus) mosquito. A pregnant woman already infected with dengue can pass the virus to her fetus during pregnancy or around the time of birth. Dengue has emerged as a worldwide problem since the 1960s. The disease is common in many popular tourist destinations in the Caribbean (including Puerto Rico), Central and South America, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Mild symptoms of dengue can be confused with other illnesses that cause fever, aches and pains, or a rash. The most common symptom of dengue is fever with any of the following: nausea, vomiting, rash, aches and pains (eye pain, typically behind the eyes, muscle, joint, or bone pain). Most people will recover after about a week. There is no specific medication to treat dengue. A blood test is the only way to confirm the diagnosis.

Pathogens Tested
  • Chikungunya
  • Dengue Virus

Method Real-Time RT-PCR.
Sample Type
EDTA blood, Serum, Urine.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPC-031
Description Chlamydia trachomatis: is the most commonly known species and the causative agent of Chlamydia, the sexually transmitted disease. This bacterium can also be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy and infect the eyes causing conjunctivitis. The genital infection causes urethritis, epididymitis and prostatitis in males and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) in females with an increased risk of contracting HIV. Transmission of the bacteria occurs via contact with infected bodily fluids which then infect mucosal membranes.

Chlamydophila pneumonia: is a etiologic agent of respiratory tract infection, mainly pneumonia. C.pneumoniae is the causative agent of an atypical pneumonia (walking pneumonia) similar to those caused by Mycoplasma pneumonia and Legionella pneumonia. Chlamydophila pneumonia can cause bronchitis, sinusitis, pneumonia and possibly atherosclerosis. The organism is transmitted person- to-person by respiratory droplets and causes bronchitis, sinusitis and pneumonia.

Chlamydia psittaci: causes psittacosis, and occasionally conjuctivitis and myocarditis in man, and infection associated with abortion, arthritis, conjuctivitis, encephalomyelitis and enteritis. Infection is usually asymptomatic. Mild flu-like illness and Reactive arthritis may appear. Human infection with C. psittaci usually occurs when a person inhales organisms that have been aerosolized from dried feces or respiratory tract secretions of infected birds.

Method Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
Swab / Secretion (Respiratory), Swab / Secretion (Conjunctival), Stool, EDTA blood, Culture, Tissue, CSF.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPC-032
Description Clostridium perfringens (formerly known as C. welchii, or Bacillus welchii) is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming pathogenic bacterium of the genus Clostridium. C. perfringens is ever present in nature and can be found as a normal component of decaying vegetation, marine sediment, the intestinal tract of humans and other vertebrates, insects, and soil. It has the shortest reported generation time of any organism at 6.3 minutes in thioglycollate medium.

Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) is one of the most common causes of food poisoning. Cooking kills the growing C. perfringens cells that cause food poisoning, but not necessarily the spores that can grow into new cells. If cooked food is not promptly served or refrigerated, the spores can grow and produce new cells. These bacteria thrive between 40-140°F (the Danger Zone). This means that they grow quickly at room temperature, but they cannot grow at refrigerator or freezer temperatures. Since C. perfringens forms spores that can withstand cooking temperatures, if cooked food is let stand for long enough, germination can ensue and infective bacterial colonies develop. Symptoms typically include abdominal cramping, diarrhea; vomiting and fever are usual. The whole course usually resolves within 24 hours. Very rare, fatal cases of clostridial necrotizing enteritis (also known as pigbel) have been known to involve "Type C" strains of the organism, which produce a potently ulcerative beta-toxin.

This assay can detect alpha, beta-2, epsilon, iota and enterotoxin.

Method Multi Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
Stool, Swab / Secretion (Rectal), Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPC-033
Description Coxiella burnetii is a gram negative coccobacillus that causes Q-Fever disease in animals and humans. It belongs to a group of organisms known as Rickettsia. The organism may be found in the birth products (i.e. placenta, amniotic fluid), urine, feces, and milk of infected animals.

In humans, Q Fever is generally a self-limiting illness. People get infected by breathing in dust that has been contaminated by infected animal feces, urine, milk, and birth products that contain Coxiella burnetii. Direct contact (e.g. touching, being licked) with an animal is not required to become sick with Q fever. People may also get sick with Q fever by eating contaminated, unpasteurized dairy products. Rarely, Q fever has been spread through blood transfusion, from a pregnant woman to her fetus, or through sex.

This assay is used for the detection of both C. burnetti and C. symbiont; however, it cannot be used to differentiate between the two subtypes

Pathogens Tested
  • Coxiella burnetti
  • Coxiella symbiont;

Method Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
EDTA blood, Tissue (placental), Culture, Milk, Stool, Urine, Amniotic fluid.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool should be transported to MBG Lab within 24h of collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days. Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links




Molecular Biology & Genetics Laboratory

Pathogen Identification


Molecular based methods have advanced the laboratory testing to faster and better diagnostics. PCR methods, microarray and next generation sequencing have provided speed and high level of accuracy. Molecular biology based methods are sensitive and quick to detect microbial pathogens in various clinical specimens. We offer molecular detection of pathogenic viruses, bacteria and parasites from clinical specimens. MBG Lab is ISO 15189 accredited and benefits from a stand-alone containment Level 3 facility where samples for highly contagious pathogen are received and processed.


All Bacteria Virus Fungi Parasite


Validated
Assay Code See Below
Description Campylobacteriosis is a bacterial disease caused by Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. Campylobacter usually causes a mild to severe infection of the gastrointestinal system, including watery or bloody diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting. Sometimes animals can spread Campylobacter to humans. Most people get campylobacteriosis from contaminated food. However, animals can have Campylobacter in their feces (stool). If people touch contaminated feces, they can get sick. Animals that may carry Campylobacter in their feces include farm animals, cats, and dogs. Animals do not have to be ill to pass Campylobacter to humans. People with compromised immune systems, including those undergoing treatments for cancer, organ transplant patients, and people with HIV/AIDS, have a higher risk than others of getting Campylobacter infection from food and animals.

Pathogens Tested
  • HPC-029 : Campylobacter coli
  • HPC-028 : Campylobacter jejuni

Method Real -Time PCR.
Sample Type
Culture , Stool, Swab/ Secretion (Rectal).
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool should be transported to MBG Lab within 24h of collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days. Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPC-191
Description Chikungunya virus is most often spread to people by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. It is rarely transmitted from mother to newborn around the time of birth. Prior to 2013, Chikungunya virus cases and outbreaks had been identified in countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific Oceans. In late 2013, the first local transmission of chikungunya virus in the Americas was identified in Caribbean countries and territories. Local transmission means that mosquitoes in the area have been infected with the virus and are spreading it to people. Symptoms usually begin 3-7 days after being bitten by an infected mosquito. The most common symptoms of infection are fever and joint pain. Other symptoms may include headache, muscle pain, joint swelling or rash. There is no vaccine to prevent or medicine to treat chikungunya virus infection. Travelers can protect themselves by preventing mosquito bites. During the first 8 days of illness, chikungunya viral RNA can often be identified in serum.

Dengue viruses are spread to people through the bite of an infected Aedes species (Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus) mosquito. A pregnant woman already infected with dengue can pass the virus to her fetus during pregnancy or around the time of birth. Dengue has emerged as a worldwide problem since the 1960s. The disease is common in many popular tourist destinations in the Caribbean (including Puerto Rico), Central and South America, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Mild symptoms of dengue can be confused with other illnesses that cause fever, aches and pains, or a rash. The most common symptom of dengue is fever with any of the following: nausea, vomiting, rash, aches and pains (eye pain, typically behind the eyes, muscle, joint, or bone pain). Most people will recover after about a week. There is no specific medication to treat dengue. A blood test is the only way to confirm the diagnosis.

Pathogens Tested
  • Chikungunya
  • Dengue Virus

Method Real-Time RT-PCR.
Sample Type
EDTA blood, Serum, Urine.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPC-031
Description Chlamydia trachomatis: is the most commonly known species and the causative agent of Chlamydia, the sexually transmitted disease. This bacterium can also be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy and infect the eyes causing conjunctivitis. The genital infection causes urethritis, epididymitis and prostatitis in males and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) in females with an increased risk of contracting HIV. Transmission of the bacteria occurs via contact with infected bodily fluids which then infect mucosal membranes.

Chlamydophila pneumonia: is a etiologic agent of respiratory tract infection, mainly pneumonia. C.pneumoniae is the causative agent of an atypical pneumonia (walking pneumonia) similar to those caused by Mycoplasma pneumonia and Legionella pneumonia. Chlamydophila pneumonia can cause bronchitis, sinusitis, pneumonia and possibly atherosclerosis. The organism is transmitted person- to-person by respiratory droplets and causes bronchitis, sinusitis and pneumonia.

Chlamydia psittaci: causes psittacosis, and occasionally conjuctivitis and myocarditis in man, and infection associated with abortion, arthritis, conjuctivitis, encephalomyelitis and enteritis. Infection is usually asymptomatic. Mild flu-like illness and Reactive arthritis may appear. Human infection with C. psittaci usually occurs when a person inhales organisms that have been aerosolized from dried feces or respiratory tract secretions of infected birds.

Method Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
Swab / Secretion (Respiratory), Swab / Secretion (Conjunctival), Stool, EDTA blood, Culture, Tissue, CSF.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPC-032
Description Clostridium perfringens (formerly known as C. welchii, or Bacillus welchii) is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming pathogenic bacterium of the genus Clostridium. C. perfringens is ever present in nature and can be found as a normal component of decaying vegetation, marine sediment, the intestinal tract of humans and other vertebrates, insects, and soil. It has the shortest reported generation time of any organism at 6.3 minutes in thioglycollate medium.

Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) is one of the most common causes of food poisoning. Cooking kills the growing C. perfringens cells that cause food poisoning, but not necessarily the spores that can grow into new cells. If cooked food is not promptly served or refrigerated, the spores can grow and produce new cells. These bacteria thrive between 40-140°F (the Danger Zone). This means that they grow quickly at room temperature, but they cannot grow at refrigerator or freezer temperatures. Since C. perfringens forms spores that can withstand cooking temperatures, if cooked food is let stand for long enough, germination can ensue and infective bacterial colonies develop. Symptoms typically include abdominal cramping, diarrhea; vomiting and fever are usual. The whole course usually resolves within 24 hours. Very rare, fatal cases of clostridial necrotizing enteritis (also known as pigbel) have been known to involve "Type C" strains of the organism, which produce a potently ulcerative beta-toxin.

This assay can detect alpha, beta-2, epsilon, iota and enterotoxin.

Method Multi Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
Stool, Swab / Secretion (Rectal), Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPC-033
Description Coxiella burnetii is a gram negative coccobacillus that causes Q-Fever disease in animals and humans. It belongs to a group of organisms known as Rickettsia. The organism may be found in the birth products (i.e. placenta, amniotic fluid), urine, feces, and milk of infected animals.

In humans, Q Fever is generally a self-limiting illness. People get infected by breathing in dust that has been contaminated by infected animal feces, urine, milk, and birth products that contain Coxiella burnetii. Direct contact (e.g. touching, being licked) with an animal is not required to become sick with Q fever. People may also get sick with Q fever by eating contaminated, unpasteurized dairy products. Rarely, Q fever has been spread through blood transfusion, from a pregnant woman to her fetus, or through sex.

This assay is used for the detection of both C. burnetti and C. symbiont; however, it cannot be used to differentiate between the two subtypes

Pathogens Tested
  • Coxiella burnetti
  • Coxiella symbiont;

Method Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
EDTA blood, Tissue (placental), Culture, Milk, Stool, Urine, Amniotic fluid.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool should be transported to MBG Lab within 24h of collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days. Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links