Molecular Biology & Genetics Laboratory

Pathogen Identification


Molecular based methods have advanced the laboratory testing to faster and better diagnostics. PCR methods, microarray and next generation sequencing have provided speed and high level of accuracy. Molecular biology based methods are sensitive and quick to detect microbial pathogens in various clinical specimens. We offer molecular detection of pathogenic viruses, bacteria and parasites from clinical specimens. MBG Lab is ISO 15189 accredited and benefits from a stand-alone containment Level 3 facility where samples for highly contagious pathogen are received and processed.


All Bacteria Virus Fungi Parasite


Validated
Assay Code HPB-072
Description Bacterial gastroenteritis is inflammation of the stomach and intestines caused by bacteria. Salmonella, Shigella, and Campylobacter species are the top 3 leading causes of bacterial diarrhea worldwide. Organisms such as E coli and Clostridium species are normal enteric flora, pathogenic strains of which can cause gastroenteritis. Symptoms include watery diarrhea, Nausea and vomiting, Fever and chills, abdominal pain, Blood in the stool (in severe cases).

Pathogens TestedEnterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (VTEC) is a subset of pathogenic E. coli that can cause diarrhoea or hemorrhagic colitis in humans. It is a food-borne pathogen.

Campylobacter are curved, rod-shaped, non-spore forming, Gram-negative microaerophilic bacteria predominantly found in animal faeces. Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common causes of human gastroenteritis globally. The routes of transmission are faecal-oral, person-to-person sexual contact, ingestion of contaminated food or water, and the eating of raw meat. It produces an inflammatory, sometimes bloody diarrhoea, periodontitis or dysentery syndrome, mostly including cramps, fever and pain.

Clostridium difficile , often called C. difficile or C. diff, is a bacterium that can cause symptoms ranging from diarrhoea to life-threatening inflammation of the colon. Clostridium difficile is best known for causing antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD). C. difficile bacteria are found throughout the environment in soil, air, water, human and animal faeces, and food products such as processed meats.

Yersinia enterocolitica is a bacterial species in the family Enterobacteriaceae that most often causes enterocolitis, acute diarrhoea, terminal ileitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis, and pseudoappendicitis but, if it spreads systemically, can also result in fatal sepsis. Symptoms of Y enterocolitica infection typically include diarrhoea, low-grade fever, abdominal pain and vomiting. Yersiniae are usually transmitted to humans by insufficiently cooked pork or contaminated water.

Shigella is a genus of Gram-negative, non-spore forming rod-shaped bacteria closely related to Escherichia coli and Salmonella and the causative agent of human shigellosis. Shigella infection typically occurs via ingestion (faecal oral contamination). It typically causes cramps, nausea, vomiting and dysentery. Some strains produce enterotoxin and shigatoxin, similar to the verotoxin of enterohemorragic Escherichia coli. Both shigatoxin and verotoxin are associated with causing hemolytic uremic syndrome.

Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped, Gram-negative, non-spore forming, predominantly motile Enterobacteriae. A salmonella infection is a food borne illness caused by the salmonella bacteria carried by some animals, which can be transmitted from kitchen surfaces and can be found in water, soil, animal feces, raw meats, and eggs. Salmonella infections typically affect the intestines (Salmonellosis), causing vomiting, fever, and other symptoms that usually resolve without medical treatment.
Salmonella are closely related to the Escherichia genus and are found worldwide in warm- and cold-blooded animals, in humans, and in nonliving habitats. They cause illnesses in humans and many animals, such as typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, and the food-borne disease salmonellosis. Salmonella can survive several weeks in a dry environment and several months in water; thus, they are frequently found in polluted water; contamination from the excrement of carrier animals being particularly important.

Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) causes an infection that is identical to Shigellosis, with profuse diarrhea and high fever. The illness is characterized by the appearance of blood and mucus in the stools of infected individuals or by a condition called colitis. Dysentery caused by EIEC usually occurs within 12 to 72 hours following the ingestion of contaminated food.

Method Real-Time PCR
Sample Type
Stool.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool should be transported to MBG Lab within 24h of collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code See Below
Description Brucellosis is a widespread zoonosis mainly transmitted from cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and camels through direct contact with blood, placenta, fetuses or uterine secretions, or through consumption of contaminated raw animal products (especially unpasteurized milk and soft cheese). In endemic areas, human brucellosis has serious public health consequences.There are various types of brucellosis: bovine brucellosis, which primarily affects cattle, caused by Brucella abortus, and can also affect humans.

Brucella melitensisis is the most prevalent species causing human brucellosis worldwide, owing in part to difficulties in immunizing free-ranging goats and sheep. In countries where eradication in animals (through vaccination and/or elimination of infected animals) is not feasible, prevention of human infection is primarily based on raising awareness, food-safety measures, occupational hygiene and laboratory safety.

In most countries, brucellosis is a notifiable disease. The incubation period is highly variable, usually 2-4 weeks, can be 1 week to 2 months or longer. Symptoms include acute undulating fever, headache, arthralgia, night sweats, fatigue and anorexia.

Pathogens Tested
  • HPB-023 : Brucella abortus (This Assay includes the detection of Brucella species and Brucella abortus)
  • HPB-024 : Brucella melitensis (This Assay includes the detection of Brucella species and Brucella melitensis)
  • HPB-025 : Brucella Species (This Assay includes the detection of Brucella species. This Assay can detect many Brucella species including B.abortus, B.melitensis, B.suis and B. canis)

Method Real-Time PCR
Sample Type
EDTA blood, Tissue (Fetal), Culture, Swab/ Secretion (Genital), Milk, Semen.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Milk should be transported preferably at -20°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links




Molecular Biology & Genetics Laboratory

Pathogen Identification


Molecular based methods have advanced the laboratory testing to faster and better diagnostics. PCR methods, microarray and next generation sequencing have provided speed and high level of accuracy. Molecular biology based methods are sensitive and quick to detect microbial pathogens in various clinical specimens. We offer molecular detection of pathogenic viruses, bacteria and parasites from clinical specimens. MBG Lab is ISO 15189 accredited and benefits from a stand-alone containment Level 3 facility where samples for highly contagious pathogen are received and processed.


All Bacteria Virus Fungi Parasite


Validated
Assay Code HPB-072
Description Bacterial gastroenteritis is inflammation of the stomach and intestines caused by bacteria. Salmonella, Shigella, and Campylobacter species are the top 3 leading causes of bacterial diarrhea worldwide. Organisms such as E coli and Clostridium species are normal enteric flora, pathogenic strains of which can cause gastroenteritis. Symptoms include watery diarrhea, Nausea and vomiting, Fever and chills, abdominal pain, Blood in the stool (in severe cases).

Pathogens TestedEnterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (VTEC) is a subset of pathogenic E. coli that can cause diarrhoea or hemorrhagic colitis in humans. It is a food-borne pathogen.

Campylobacter are curved, rod-shaped, non-spore forming, Gram-negative microaerophilic bacteria predominantly found in animal faeces. Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common causes of human gastroenteritis globally. The routes of transmission are faecal-oral, person-to-person sexual contact, ingestion of contaminated food or water, and the eating of raw meat. It produces an inflammatory, sometimes bloody diarrhoea, periodontitis or dysentery syndrome, mostly including cramps, fever and pain.

Clostridium difficile , often called C. difficile or C. diff, is a bacterium that can cause symptoms ranging from diarrhoea to life-threatening inflammation of the colon. Clostridium difficile is best known for causing antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD). C. difficile bacteria are found throughout the environment in soil, air, water, human and animal faeces, and food products such as processed meats.

Yersinia enterocolitica is a bacterial species in the family Enterobacteriaceae that most often causes enterocolitis, acute diarrhoea, terminal ileitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis, and pseudoappendicitis but, if it spreads systemically, can also result in fatal sepsis. Symptoms of Y enterocolitica infection typically include diarrhoea, low-grade fever, abdominal pain and vomiting. Yersiniae are usually transmitted to humans by insufficiently cooked pork or contaminated water.

Shigella is a genus of Gram-negative, non-spore forming rod-shaped bacteria closely related to Escherichia coli and Salmonella and the causative agent of human shigellosis. Shigella infection typically occurs via ingestion (faecal oral contamination). It typically causes cramps, nausea, vomiting and dysentery. Some strains produce enterotoxin and shigatoxin, similar to the verotoxin of enterohemorragic Escherichia coli. Both shigatoxin and verotoxin are associated with causing hemolytic uremic syndrome.

Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped, Gram-negative, non-spore forming, predominantly motile Enterobacteriae. A salmonella infection is a food borne illness caused by the salmonella bacteria carried by some animals, which can be transmitted from kitchen surfaces and can be found in water, soil, animal feces, raw meats, and eggs. Salmonella infections typically affect the intestines (Salmonellosis), causing vomiting, fever, and other symptoms that usually resolve without medical treatment.
Salmonella are closely related to the Escherichia genus and are found worldwide in warm- and cold-blooded animals, in humans, and in nonliving habitats. They cause illnesses in humans and many animals, such as typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, and the food-borne disease salmonellosis. Salmonella can survive several weeks in a dry environment and several months in water; thus, they are frequently found in polluted water; contamination from the excrement of carrier animals being particularly important.

Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) causes an infection that is identical to Shigellosis, with profuse diarrhea and high fever. The illness is characterized by the appearance of blood and mucus in the stools of infected individuals or by a condition called colitis. Dysentery caused by EIEC usually occurs within 12 to 72 hours following the ingestion of contaminated food.

Method Real-Time PCR
Sample Type
Stool.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool should be transported to MBG Lab within 24h of collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code See Below
Description Brucellosis is a widespread zoonosis mainly transmitted from cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and camels through direct contact with blood, placenta, fetuses or uterine secretions, or through consumption of contaminated raw animal products (especially unpasteurized milk and soft cheese). In endemic areas, human brucellosis has serious public health consequences.There are various types of brucellosis: bovine brucellosis, which primarily affects cattle, caused by Brucella abortus, and can also affect humans.

Brucella melitensisis is the most prevalent species causing human brucellosis worldwide, owing in part to difficulties in immunizing free-ranging goats and sheep. In countries where eradication in animals (through vaccination and/or elimination of infected animals) is not feasible, prevention of human infection is primarily based on raising awareness, food-safety measures, occupational hygiene and laboratory safety.

In most countries, brucellosis is a notifiable disease. The incubation period is highly variable, usually 2-4 weeks, can be 1 week to 2 months or longer. Symptoms include acute undulating fever, headache, arthralgia, night sweats, fatigue and anorexia.

Pathogens Tested
  • HPB-023 : Brucella abortus (This Assay includes the detection of Brucella species and Brucella abortus)
  • HPB-024 : Brucella melitensis (This Assay includes the detection of Brucella species and Brucella melitensis)
  • HPB-025 : Brucella Species (This Assay includes the detection of Brucella species. This Assay can detect many Brucella species including B.abortus, B.melitensis, B.suis and B. canis)

Method Real-Time PCR
Sample Type
EDTA blood, Tissue (Fetal), Culture, Swab/ Secretion (Genital), Milk, Semen.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Milk should be transported preferably at -20°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links