Molecular Biology & Genetics Laboratory

Pathogen Identification


Molecular based methods have advanced the laboratory testing to faster and better diagnostics. PCR methods, microarray and next generation sequencing have provided speed and high level of accuracy. Molecular biology based methods are sensitive and quick to detect microbial pathogens in various clinical specimens. We offer molecular detection of pathogenic viruses, bacteria and parasites from clinical specimens. MBG Lab is ISO 15189 accredited and benefits from a stand-alone containment Level 3 facility where samples for highly contagious pathogen are received and processed.


All Bacteria Virus Fungi Parasite


Validated
Assay Code See Below
Description Aspergillus is a type of fungus that is found indoors and outdoors. Most people breathe in Aspergillus spores every day without getting sick. However, health problems may arise in people with weakened immune systems or having underlying diseases. Aspergillosis, most often caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, occurs in humans in chronic or acute forms which are clinically very distinct. Most cases of acute aspergillosis occur in people with severely compromised immune systems, e.g. those undergoing bone marrow transplantation. Chronic colonization or infection can cause complications in people with underlying respiratory illnesses, such as asthma, cystic fibrosis, sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The most frequently identified pathogens are Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus, ubiquitous organisms capable of living under extensive environmental stress.

Aspergillus fumigatus is the primary cause of invasive aspergillosis. Triazole antifungals are used to treat patients with high-risk conditions such as stem cell and organ transplant recipients as mortality exceeds 50%. However, triazole-resistant A. fumigatus infections frequently occur and are associated with increased treatment failure and mortality. Of particular concern are resistant A.fumigatus isolates carrying either TR34/L98H or TR46/Y121F/T289A genetic resistance markers in the azole target (Cyp51A) gene and these are mostly associated with triazole fungicide use. Reports of these triazole-resistant A.fumigatus strains are more common in Europe than in the US.Understanding the prevalence of azole resistant patient isolates is important to guide clinical and public health decision-making.

Pathogens Tested
  • Aspergillus fumigatus/ terreus/ flavus
  • Azole-resistance profiling of Cyp51A gene

Method Aspergillus fumigatus / terreus / flavus by Multi Real-Time PCR (This assay includes the detection and differentiation of Aspergillus fumigatus / terreus / flavus)
Azole-resistance profiling of Cyp51A gene (This assay detects selected mutations in the Cyp51A gene related to azole-resistance, by PCR and sequencing).
Sample Type
Culture, EDTA Blood, Swab / Secretion (Respiratory), Tissue.
Transport Condition Sample should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 10 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 7 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPB-072
Description Bacterial gastroenteritis is inflammation of the stomach and intestines caused by bacteria. Salmonella, Shigella, and Campylobacter species are the top 3 leading causes of bacterial diarrhea worldwide. Organisms such as E coli and Clostridium species are normal enteric flora, pathogenic strains of which can cause gastroenteritis. Symptoms include watery diarrhea, Nausea and vomiting, Fever and chills, abdominal pain, Blood in the stool (in severe cases).

Pathogens TestedEnterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (VTEC) is a subset of pathogenic E. coli that can cause diarrhoea or hemorrhagic colitis in humans. It is a food-borne pathogen.

Campylobacter are curved, rod-shaped, non-spore forming, Gram-negative microaerophilic bacteria predominantly found in animal faeces. Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common causes of human gastroenteritis globally. The routes of transmission are faecal-oral, person-to-person sexual contact, ingestion of contaminated food or water, and the eating of raw meat. It produces an inflammatory, sometimes bloody diarrhoea, periodontitis or dysentery syndrome, mostly including cramps, fever and pain.

Clostridium difficile , often called C. difficile or C. diff, is a bacterium that can cause symptoms ranging from diarrhoea to life-threatening inflammation of the colon. Clostridium difficile is best known for causing antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD). C. difficile bacteria are found throughout the environment in soil, air, water, human and animal faeces, and food products such as processed meats.

Yersinia enterocolitica is a bacterial species in the family Enterobacteriaceae that most often causes enterocolitis, acute diarrhoea, terminal ileitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis, and pseudoappendicitis but, if it spreads systemically, can also result in fatal sepsis. Symptoms of Y enterocolitica infection typically include diarrhoea, low-grade fever, abdominal pain and vomiting. Yersiniae are usually transmitted to humans by insufficiently cooked pork or contaminated water.

Shigella is a genus of Gram-negative, non-spore forming rod-shaped bacteria closely related to Escherichia coli and Salmonella and the causative agent of human shigellosis. Shigella infection typically occurs via ingestion (faecal oral contamination). It typically causes cramps, nausea, vomiting and dysentery. Some strains produce enterotoxin and shigatoxin, similar to the verotoxin of enterohemorragic Escherichia coli. Both shigatoxin and verotoxin are associated with causing hemolytic uremic syndrome.

Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped, Gram-negative, non-spore forming, predominantly motile Enterobacteriae. A salmonella infection is a food borne illness caused by the salmonella bacteria carried by some animals, which can be transmitted from kitchen surfaces and can be found in water, soil, animal feces, raw meats, and eggs. Salmonella infections typically affect the intestines (Salmonellosis), causing vomiting, fever, and other symptoms that usually resolve without medical treatment.
Salmonella are closely related to the Escherichia genus and are found worldwide in warm- and cold-blooded animals, in humans, and in nonliving habitats. They cause illnesses in humans and many animals, such as typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, and the food-borne disease salmonellosis. Salmonella can survive several weeks in a dry environment and several months in water; thus, they are frequently found in polluted water; contamination from the excrement of carrier animals being particularly important.

Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) causes an infection that is identical to Shigellosis, with profuse diarrhea and high fever. The illness is characterized by the appearance of blood and mucus in the stools of infected individuals or by a condition called colitis. Dysentery caused by EIEC usually occurs within 12 to 72 hours following the ingestion of contaminated food.

Method Real-Time PCR
Sample Type
Stool.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool should be transported to MBG Lab within 24h of collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code See Below
Description Brucellosis is a widespread zoonosis mainly transmitted from cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and camels through direct contact with blood, placenta, fetuses or uterine secretions, or through consumption of contaminated raw animal products (especially unpasteurized milk and soft cheese). In endemic areas, human brucellosis has serious public health consequences.There are various types of brucellosis: bovine brucellosis, which primarily affects cattle, caused by Brucella abortus, and can also affect humans.

Brucella melitensisis is the most prevalent species causing human brucellosis worldwide, owing in part to difficulties in immunizing free-ranging goats and sheep. In countries where eradication in animals (through vaccination and/or elimination of infected animals) is not feasible, prevention of human infection is primarily based on raising awareness, food-safety measures, occupational hygiene and laboratory safety.

In most countries, brucellosis is a notifiable disease. The incubation period is highly variable, usually 2-4 weeks, can be 1 week to 2 months or longer. Symptoms include acute undulating fever, headache, arthralgia, night sweats, fatigue and anorexia.

Pathogens Tested
  • HPB-023 : Brucella abortus (This Assay includes the detection of Brucella species and Brucella abortus)
  • HPB-024 : Brucella melitensis (This Assay includes the detection of Brucella species and Brucella melitensis)
  • HPB-025 : Brucella Species (This Assay includes the detection of Brucella species. This Assay can detect many Brucella species including B.abortus, B.melitensis, B.suis and B. canis)

Method Real-Time PCR
Sample Type
EDTA blood, Tissue (Fetal), Culture, Swab/ Secretion (Genital), Milk, Semen.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Milk should be transported preferably at -20°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code See Below
Description Campylobacteriosis is a bacterial disease caused by Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. Campylobacter usually causes a mild to severe infection of the gastrointestinal system, including watery or bloody diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting. Sometimes animals can spread Campylobacter to humans. Most people get campylobacteriosis from contaminated food. However, animals can have Campylobacter in their feces (stool). If people touch contaminated feces, they can get sick. Animals that may carry Campylobacter in their feces include farm animals, cats, and dogs. Animals do not have to be ill to pass Campylobacter to humans. People with compromised immune systems, including those undergoing treatments for cancer, organ transplant patients, and people with HIV/AIDS, have a higher risk than others of getting Campylobacter infection from food and animals.

Pathogens Tested
  • HPC-029 : Campylobacter coli
  • HPC-028 : Campylobacter jejuni

Method Real -Time PCR.
Sample Type
Culture , Stool, Swab/ Secretion (Rectal).
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool should be transported to MBG Lab within 24h of collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days. Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPC-191
Description Chikungunya virus is most often spread to people by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. It is rarely transmitted from mother to newborn around the time of birth. Prior to 2013, Chikungunya virus cases and outbreaks had been identified in countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific Oceans. In late 2013, the first local transmission of chikungunya virus in the Americas was identified in Caribbean countries and territories. Local transmission means that mosquitoes in the area have been infected with the virus and are spreading it to people. Symptoms usually begin 3-7 days after being bitten by an infected mosquito. The most common symptoms of infection are fever and joint pain. Other symptoms may include headache, muscle pain, joint swelling or rash. There is no vaccine to prevent or medicine to treat chikungunya virus infection. Travelers can protect themselves by preventing mosquito bites. During the first 8 days of illness, chikungunya viral RNA can often be identified in serum.

Dengue viruses are spread to people through the bite of an infected Aedes species (Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus) mosquito. A pregnant woman already infected with dengue can pass the virus to her fetus during pregnancy or around the time of birth. Dengue has emerged as a worldwide problem since the 1960s. The disease is common in many popular tourist destinations in the Caribbean (including Puerto Rico), Central and South America, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Mild symptoms of dengue can be confused with other illnesses that cause fever, aches and pains, or a rash. The most common symptom of dengue is fever with any of the following: nausea, vomiting, rash, aches and pains (eye pain, typically behind the eyes, muscle, joint, or bone pain). Most people will recover after about a week. There is no specific medication to treat dengue. A blood test is the only way to confirm the diagnosis.

Pathogens Tested
  • Chikungunya
  • Dengue Virus

Method Real-Time RT-PCR.
Sample Type
EDTA blood, Serum, Urine.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPC-031
Description Chlamydia trachomatis: is the most commonly known species and the causative agent of Chlamydia, the sexually transmitted disease. This bacterium can also be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy and infect the eyes causing conjunctivitis. The genital infection causes urethritis, epididymitis and prostatitis in males and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) in females with an increased risk of contracting HIV. Transmission of the bacteria occurs via contact with infected bodily fluids which then infect mucosal membranes.

Chlamydophila pneumonia: is a etiologic agent of respiratory tract infection, mainly pneumonia. C.pneumoniae is the causative agent of an atypical pneumonia (walking pneumonia) similar to those caused by Mycoplasma pneumonia and Legionella pneumonia. Chlamydophila pneumonia can cause bronchitis, sinusitis, pneumonia and possibly atherosclerosis. The organism is transmitted person- to-person by respiratory droplets and causes bronchitis, sinusitis and pneumonia.

Chlamydia psittaci: causes psittacosis, and occasionally conjuctivitis and myocarditis in man, and infection associated with abortion, arthritis, conjuctivitis, encephalomyelitis and enteritis. Infection is usually asymptomatic. Mild flu-like illness and Reactive arthritis may appear. Human infection with C. psittaci usually occurs when a person inhales organisms that have been aerosolized from dried feces or respiratory tract secretions of infected birds.

Method Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
Swab / Secretion (Respiratory), Swab / Secretion (Conjunctival), Stool, EDTA blood, Culture, Tissue, CSF.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPC-032
Description Clostridium perfringens (formerly known as C. welchii, or Bacillus welchii) is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming pathogenic bacterium of the genus Clostridium. C. perfringens is ever present in nature and can be found as a normal component of decaying vegetation, marine sediment, the intestinal tract of humans and other vertebrates, insects, and soil. It has the shortest reported generation time of any organism at 6.3 minutes in thioglycollate medium.

Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) is one of the most common causes of food poisoning. Cooking kills the growing C. perfringens cells that cause food poisoning, but not necessarily the spores that can grow into new cells. If cooked food is not promptly served or refrigerated, the spores can grow and produce new cells. These bacteria thrive between 40-140°F (the Danger Zone). This means that they grow quickly at room temperature, but they cannot grow at refrigerator or freezer temperatures. Since C. perfringens forms spores that can withstand cooking temperatures, if cooked food is let stand for long enough, germination can ensue and infective bacterial colonies develop. Symptoms typically include abdominal cramping, diarrhea; vomiting and fever are usual. The whole course usually resolves within 24 hours. Very rare, fatal cases of clostridial necrotizing enteritis (also known as pigbel) have been known to involve "Type C" strains of the organism, which produce a potently ulcerative beta-toxin.

This assay can detect alpha, beta-2, epsilon, iota and enterotoxin.

Method Multi Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
Stool, Swab / Secretion (Rectal), Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPC-033
Description Coxiella burnetii is a gram negative coccobacillus that causes Q-Fever disease in animals and humans. It belongs to a group of organisms known as Rickettsia. The organism may be found in the birth products (i.e. placenta, amniotic fluid), urine, feces, and milk of infected animals.

In humans, Q Fever is generally a self-limiting illness. People get infected by breathing in dust that has been contaminated by infected animal feces, urine, milk, and birth products that contain Coxiella burnetii. Direct contact (e.g. touching, being licked) with an animal is not required to become sick with Q fever. People may also get sick with Q fever by eating contaminated, unpasteurized dairy products. Rarely, Q fever has been spread through blood transfusion, from a pregnant woman to her fetus, or through sex.

This assay is used for the detection of both C. burnetti and C. symbiont; however, it cannot be used to differentiate between the two subtypes

Pathogens Tested
  • Coxiella burnetti
  • Coxiella symbiont;

Method Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
EDTA blood, Tissue (placental), Culture, Milk, Stool, Urine, Amniotic fluid.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool should be transported to MBG Lab within 24h of collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days. Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Accredited
Assay Code HPF-071
Description Ebola and Marburg virus are genera within the family Filoviridae. Genus Marburg­ virus contains a single species termed Marburg virus (MARV). Genus Ebola virus contains five species: Bundibugyo ebolavirus (BEBOV), Reston ebolavirus (RESTV), Sudan ebolavirus (SEBOV), Tai Forest ebolavirus (TAFV) and Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV).

All known Ebola and Marburg virus species are endemic in Africa except RESTV which is endemic in South-East Asia. Natural hosts of filoviruses are fruit-bats. After transmission to humans, filoviruses can cause severe hemorrhagic fever with a relatively high mortality rate of 20-90% (depending on the species and strain in the single outbreaks). The mode of transmission is often difficult to determine. Hunting, slaughtering and consumption of infected wild animals are likely ways of introduction of the virus into the human population. Direct contact to bats has also been shown to be a possible way of infection.

Symptoms are rather unspecific at the beginning of the disease including general malaise, fever and pain in different body parts. As the disease progresses, more severe symptoms like vomiting, diarrhea, decreased function of the liver and kidney are seen. Infectious virus titer and RNA-titer during acute disease are usually high and the level of viremia is negatively correlated with the outcome of the disease.

Pathogens Tested
  • Zaire ebola virus
  • Marburg virus

Method Real-Time RT-PCR
Sample Type
Accredited : EDTA Blood, Serum, Body fluids.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Please contact MBG Lab in advance for the correct package and transport requirements.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPG-073
Description STD Panel is an in vitro test for the detection of viral and bacterial DNA as an aid in the Evaluation of infections by Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrheae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Herpes simplex virus 1 & 2, Treponema pallidum. These infections are sexually transmitted and can be life threatening if left untreated.

To prevent getting a sexually transmitted disease, or STD, always avoid sex with anyone who has genital sores, a rash, discharge, or other symptoms. Use of barrier devices during intercourse can prevent the spread of STD.

Pathogens TestedChlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacteria commonly causing sexually transmitted disease that can lead to infertility. Usually asymptomatic in women, some develop pelvic inflammatory disease, unusual vaginal bleeding or discharge. In males symptoms such as infectious urethritis, painful or burning sensation when urinating, an unusual discharge from the penis, swollen or tender testicles, or fever are seen. Occasionally infection may spread to the epididymis (storage tubes for sperm overlying the testes in the testicle), which can be very painful and may lead to infertility. Chlamydia can also be passed from an infected mother to her baby during vaginal childbirth.

Neisseria gonorrhoeae - Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as gonococci, is a species of Gram-negative bacteria responsible for the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea in both men and women. Often, gonorrhea has no symptoms. Most people are not aware that they have the infection - especially women. Some women may have symptoms such as vaginal discharge, lower abdominal pain or pain with intercourse. If left untreated it can lead to long term complication such as pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy and infertility. Most men who are infected have symptoms such as urethritis associated with burning with urination and discharge from the penis. In both men and women if gonorrhea is left untreated, it may spread locally causing epididymitis throughout the body, affecting joints and heart valves. Gonorrhea can also be passed from a woman to her fetus during birth.

Mycoplasma genitalium - Mycoplasma genitalium is a small parasitic bacterium which lives on cilated epithelial cells of the genital tract and is sexually transmitted. In women, symptoms such as vaginal itching, burning while urinating, discharge, pain during intercourse may appear. In the long term, this infection is suspected to cause pelvic inflammatory disease and cervicitis. In men it is a major agent in urogenital tract disease.

Herpes simplex virus 1 & 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), also known as Human herpes virus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and -2), are two members of the herpes virus family, Herpesviridae, that cause genital ulcers. HSV is a sexually transmitted disease. HSV-1 is associated with many clinical manifestations including gingivostomatitis, eye infections, and various skin complications including cold sores, whitlow and super infection of eczema. HSV-2 is sexually transmitted and produces painful sores, usually in the genital area.HSV can also cause meningitis or encephalitis. Sometimes genital herpes infection can lead to miscarriage or premature birth. Herpes infection can be passed from mother to child resulting in a potentially fatal infection (neonatal herpes).

Treponema pallidum is a spirochaete bacterium with subspecies that cause treponemal diseases such as syphilis, bejel, pinta which spread through close sexual contact. Syphilis is a highly contagious disease spread primarily by sexual activity. The bacteria pass through intact mucous membranes and abraded skin; they are then carried by the blood stream to every organ in the body. The symptoms of syphilis depend on the stage of the disease. Many people do not have symptoms. In general, painless sores and swollen lymph nodes are possible symptoms of primary syphilis. Those with secondary syphilis may also have fever, fatigue, rash, aches and pains, and loss of appetite, among other symptoms. Tertiary syphilis causes heart, brain, and nervous system problems. The organism can also be transmitted to a fetus by transplacental passage during the later stages of pregnancy, giving rise to congenital syphilis.

Method Real-Time PCR
Sample Type
Swab / Secretion (Genital) , Swab / Secretion (Rectal), Swab / Secretion (Abscess), Urine.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Please, contact MBG Lab for more information

Research Use Only
Assay Code HPH-074
Description The Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a member of the Hepadnaviridae with an outer lipid envelope and an icosahedral nucleocapsid core composed of protein. HBV contains a small, partially double-stranded, relaxed circular DNA genome. HBV infection is a global public health problem, with over 300 million chronically infected patients worldwide. Chronic HBV infection are associated with a high risk of developing severe liver diseases, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and results in a million deaths. Symptoms of acute infection include liver inflammation, vomiting, jaundice, and abdominal pain. Modes of transmission are the same as those for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but the hepatitis B virus is 50 to 100 times more infectious. Hepatitis B is usually spread when blood, semen, or another body fluid from a person infected with the Hepatitis B virus enters the body of someone who is not infected. This can happen through sexual contact with an infected person or sharing needles, syringes, or other drug-injection equipment. Hepatitis B can also be passed from an infected mother to her baby at birth.

Being able to detect and quantify the DNA allows an estimation of infectivity and the likelihood of progression to severe chronic disease. It is also useful to monitor the success of treatment. Occasionally people can be HBV DNA positive without other serological markers such as HBsAg, for example in the first two weeks of the infection. The best way to prevent Hepatitis B is by getting vaccinated.

Method Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
EDTA Blood, Serum.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Please, contact MBG Lab for more information

Accredited
Assay Code See Below
Description There are three types of influenza viruses: A, B, and C. Influenza A viruses are members of the family Orthomyxoviridae and are further classified by subtype on the basis of the two main surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA).
There are 18 different hemagglutinin subtypes H1- H18 and 11 different neuraminidase subtypes ( N1- N11). These two glycoproteins both recognize the sialic acid and have complementary activities, the HA binds the sialic acid through its receptor-binding site, the NA is a receptor-destroying enzyme that cleaves 2-3 and 2-6-linked sialic acids. Therefore, the functional HA/NA balance is a critical factor for a good viral fitness and plays a major role in overcoming the host barrier and the efficiency of sustained human-to-human transmission.

Influenza A (FluA) is associated with acute respiratory infections of varying severity, ranging from asymptomatic infection to fatal disease. Typical influenza symptoms include fever, sore throat, cough, headache and myalgia. Complications include primary influenza viral pneumonitis, bacterial pneumonia and exacerbation of underlying chronic conditions. Illness tends to be most severe in the elderly, in infants and young children, and in the immunocompromised. The swine-lineage influenza A virus subtype H1N1 A(H1N1)swl) was reported in spring 2009. In June 2009, the WHO declared an H1N1 pandemic, moving the alert level to phase 6, marking the first global pandemic since the 1968 Hong Kong flu. Influenza B (FluB) viruses cause the same spectrum of disease as influenza A. However, Influenza B is less common than influenza A and does not cause pandemics.

Influenza is transmitted through the air by coughs or sneezes, creating aerosols containing the virus. Annual immunization is strongly recommended for older people, pregnant women, those at risk and those who work or live with vulnerable groups. There are nine known subtypes of H5 viruses (H5N1, H5N2, H5N3, H5N4, H5N5, H5N6, H5N7, H5N8, and H5N9).The first confirmed human case of infection with the highly pathogenic H5N1 strain of AIV was reported in Hong Kong in 1997, the first recognized case of virus transmission directly from poultry to humans; a second outbreak of H5N1 viruses occurred in 2003, and continuing occurrences have been reported (Yamaji et al., 2015).
Sporadic H5 virus infection of humans has occurred, such as with Asian lineage HPAI (highly pathogenic) H5N1 viruses currently circulating among poultry in Asia and the Middle East. Human infection of H5N1 virus infections have been reported in 16 countries, often resulting in severe pneumonia and greater than 50% mortality. Asian HPAI H5N1 viruses have infected the respiratory tract of humans, causing severe illness (e.g. pneumonia and respiratory failure) and death in some people.

There are nine known subtypes of H7 viruses (H7N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N4, H7N5, H7N6, H7N7, H7N8, and H7N9). H7 virus infection in humans is uncommon. The most frequently identified H7 viruses associated with human infection are Asian lineage avian influenza A(H7N9) viruses, which were first detected in China in 2013. While human infections are rare, these have commonly resulted in severe respiratory illness and death. In addition to Asian lineage H7N9 viruses, H7N2, H7N3, H7N7 virus infections have been reported. These viruses have primarily caused mild to moderate illness in people, with symptoms that include conjunctivitis and/or upper respiratory tract symptoms.

There are nine known subtypes of H9 viruses (H9N1, H9N2, H9N3, H9N4, H9N5, H9N6, H9N7, H9N8, and H9N9). All H9 viruses identified worldwide in wild birds and poultry are LPAI viruses (low pathogenicity). LPAI viruses are usually associated with mild disease in poultry. H9N2 virus has been detected in bird populations in Asia, Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Rare, sporadic H9N2 virus infections in people have been reported to generally cause mild upper respiratory tract illness.


Pathogens Tested
  • HPI-070 : Influenza Panel
  • HPI-017 : Influenza N1
  • HPH-016 : Influenza H5
  • HPH-015 : Influenza H7
  • HPH-014 : Influenza H9

Method Real-Time RT PCR
Sample Type
Nasopharyngeal /throat swab (2 swabs), Nasal aspirate, Nasal wash, Broncheoalveolar lavage, Sputum, Bronchial wash, Tracheal aspirate, Lung tissue, Viral culture.
Specimens must be sent in RNA Preservative media.
Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT. Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.

Links

Validated
Assay Code See Below
Description Legionella is a pathogenic group of gram negative bacterium. It thrives in central heating and air conditioning systems. Legionella pneumophila is the primary human pathogenic bacterium and is the causative agent of legionellosis or Legionnaires disease. Legionella pneumophila invades and replicates in macrophages. Patients with Legionnaires disease usually have pneumonia, fever, chills, and a cough, which may be dry or may produce sputum. Some patients also have muscle aches, headache, tiredness, loss of appetite, loss of coordination (ataxia), and occasionally diarrhoea and vomiting. Confusion and impaired cognition and low normal heart rate may also occur. Test may reveal the patient's renal functions, liver functions and electrolytes are deranged, including hyponatremia. It is not transmitted from person to person. It is transmitted by inhalation of aerosolized water and/or soil contaminated with the bacteria.

Legionella longbeachae causes Pontiac fever. Pontiac fever is an acute, non-fatal respiratory disease that causes a mild upper respiratory infection. Symptoms can include fever, headaches and muscle aches but unlike Legionnaires' disease Pontiac Fever does not cause pneumonia. Like other Legionella species, person-to-person transmission has not been documented. However, unlike other species the primary transmission mode is inhalation of dust from contaminated compost or soil that contains the organism causing legionellosis.

Pathogens Tested
  • HPL-034 : Legionella pneumophila (This assay includes the detection of Legionella species and subtype Legionella pneumophila.)
  • HPL-035 : Legionella Species (This assay includes the detection of Legionella species. This Assay can detect Legionella pneumophila, L. adelaidensis, L. anisa, L. birminghamensis, L. bozemanii , L. brunensis, L. cherii , L. cincinnatiensis, L. dumoffii, L. erythra , L. feelei, L. gormanii, L. gratiana, L. hackeliae, L.israelensis, L. jamestownensis, L. jordanis, L. lansingensis, L. longbeachae, L. maceachernii , L. micdadei , L. moravica, L. oakridgensis paucimobilis , L. parisiensis, L. quinlivanii, L. rubrilucens, L. sainthelensis, L. spiritensis, L. steigerwaltii , L. taurinensis, L. tucsonensis, L. wadsworthii)

Method Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
Water, Swab / Secretion (Respiratory), Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPL-036
Description Leptospirosis is a transmissible disease of animals and humans caused by infection with any of the pathogenic members of the genus Leptospira. It is considered the most common zoonosis in the world and is associated with rodents in settings of poor sanitation, agricultural occupations, and increasingly "adventure" sports or races involving fresh water, mud, or soil exposure. Humans can become infected through: Contact with urine (or other body fluids, except saliva) from infected animals. Contact with water, soil, or food contaminated with the urine of infected animals. The bacteria can enter the body through skin or mucous membranes (eyes, nose, or mouth), especially if the skin is broken from a cut or scratch. Drinking contaminated water can also cause infection. Outbreaks of leptospirosis are usually caused by exposure to contaminated water, such as floodwaters. Person to person transmission is rare.

Method Real-Time PCR
Sample Type
EDTA blood, Swab / Secretion (Organ), Tissue, Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Accredited
Assay Code HPM-020
Description Coronaviruses are positive-stranded RNA viruses causing mainly respiratory and enteric disease in a range of animals and in humans. Four different human coronaviruses (hCoV) circulate at a global population level. These cause the common cold. The fifth important hCoV is SARS-CoV, which appeared for a limited time period during 2002 and 2003. It caused an outbreak affecting at least 8,000 people. During September 2012, health authorities were notified of several cases of severe hCoV infection caused by a novel virus type hCoV-EMC. The strain was redefined by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses into Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus MERS-CoV since it was first reported in Saudi Arabia.
MERS-CoV is a beta coronavirus. Most people infected with MERS-CoV developed severe acute respiratory illness with symptoms of fever, cough, and shortness of breath. MERS-CoV has been shown to spread between people who are in close contact.

Method Real-Time RT-PCR
Sample Type
Accredited : Swab / Secretion (Respiratory).
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Specimens must be sent in RNA Preservative media. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code See Below
Description Mycobacterium is a genus of Actinobacteria, family Mycobacteriaceae. Over 190 species are recognized in this genus. This genus includes pathogens known to cause serious diseases in mammals, including tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and leprosy (Mycobacterium leprae) in humans. Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic disease of animals and humans caused by Mycobacterium bovis.

Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria usually attack the lungs, but TB bacteria can attack any part of the body such as the kidney, spine, and brain. Not everyone infected with TB bacteria becomes sick. As a result, two TB-related conditions exist: latent TB infection (LTBI) and TB disease. If not treated properly, TB disease can be fatal. There are two kinds of tests that are used to detect TB bacteria in the body: the TB skin test (TST) and TB blood tests. A positive TB skin test or TB blood test only tells that a person has been infected with TB bacteria. It does not tell whether the person has latent TB infection (LTBI) or has progressed to TB disease. Other tests, such as a chest x-ray and a sample of sputum, are needed to see whether the person has TB disease.

Pathogens Tested
  • HPM-038 : Mycobacterium species (This assay includes the detection of Mycobacterium species. This assay can detect M. austroafricanum, M.avium subsp. avium,M.bovis BCG, M.chelonae, M.gordonae, M.fortuitum subsp.fortuitum, M.insubricum, M.intracellulare, M.kansasii, M.marium, M.mucogenicum, M.peregrinum, M.porcinum, M.scrofulaceum, M.setense, M.simiae, M.smegmatis, M.terrae, M.tuberculosis, M.ulcerans, M.xenopi)
  • HPM-100 : Mycobacterium tuberculosis (This assay includes the detection of Mycobacterium species and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.)

Method Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
EDTA blood, Blood on FTA card, Stool, Swab / Secretion (Respiratory), Tissue, Culture, CSF, Urine (for urinary TB).
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool should be transported to MBG Lab within 24h of collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPM-041
Description Mycoplasma refers to a genus of bacteria that are the smallest living cells known. They can be parasitic or saprotrophic.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae causes the disease mycoplasma pneumonia, a form of atypical bacterial pneumonia, and is related to cold agglutinin disease. It is also referred to as walking pneumonia. Symptoms include cough that may come in violent spasms but produce very little mucus, mild flu-like symptoms such as fever and chills, sore throat, headache, tiredness malaise and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). It is spread by contact with droplets from nose and throat of an infected person.

Mycoplasma genitalium is a small parasitic bacterium that lives on cilated epithelial cells of the genital tract and is sexually transmitted. In women symptoms such as vaginal itching, burning while urinating, discharge, pain during intercourse may appear. In the long term, this infection is suspected to cause pelvic inflammatory disease and cervicitis. In men, it is a major agent in urogenital tract disease.

Pathogens TestedThis assay can detect many Mycoplasma species including Mycoplasma agassizii,Mycoplasma anatis, Mycoplasma anseris, Mycoplasma arginini,Mycoplasma arthritidis,Mycoplasma auris, Mycoplasma buccale, Mycoplasma canadense,Mycoplasma cloacale,Mycoplasma collis, Mycoplasma columborale, Mycoplasma cricetuli, Mycoplasma cynos,Mycoplasma falconis,Mycoplasma faucium, Mycoplasma felis, Mycoplasma gateae,Mycoplasma gypis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma hyopharyngis, Mycoplasma hyorhinis,Mycoplasma hyosynoviae, Mycoplasma iguana, Mycoplasma lagogenitalium, Mycoplasma leonicaptivi, Mycoplasma molare, Mycoplasma mustelae, Mycoplasma neophronis,Mycoplasma neurolyticum, Mycoplasma orale, Mycoplasma phocicerebrale, Mycoplasma phocidae, Mycoplasma salivarium, Mycoplasma spumans, Mycoplasma timone, and Mycoplasma zalophi .

The assay cannot detect Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma pulmonis.

Method Real-Time PCR
Sample Type
Tissue, EDTA blood, Swab/ Secretion (Respiratory), Swab / Secretion (Conjunctival), Swab/ Secretion (Genital), CSF, Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPN-187
Description Nipah virus (NiV) is a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Henipavirus. Transmission of Nipah virus to humans may occur after direct contact with infected bats, infected pigs, or from other NiV infected people. Infection with Nipah virus is associated with encephalitis (inflammation of the brain). After exposure and an incubation period of 5 to 14 days, illness presents with 3-14 days of fever and headache, followed by drowsiness, disorientation and mental confusion. These signs and symptoms can progress to coma within 24-48 hours. Some patients have a respiratory illness during the early part of their infections, and half of the patients showing severe neurological signs showed also pulmonary signs.

During the Nipah virus disease outbreak in 1998-99, 265 patients were infected with the virus. About 40% of those patients who entered hospitals with serious nervous disease died from the illness. Long-term sequelae following Nipah virus infection have been noted, including persistent convulsions and personality changes. Latent infections with subsequent reactivation of Nipah virus and death have also been reported months and even years after exposure.

Method Real-Time RT-PCR.
Sample Type
EDTA Blood, CSF, Swab / Secretion (Respiratory), Urine.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Urine sample must be frozen after collection and delivered within 24 hours.
Specimens must be sent in RNA Preservative media. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPR-192
Description Rabies is a zoonotic disease that can affect all mammals. It is caused by Rabies lyssavirus, which is a neurotropic virus and is the type species of the Lyssavirus genus of the Rhabdoviridae family. These viruses are enveloped and have a single stranded negative-sense RNA genome. Rabies virus is primarily transmitted through the saliva of an infected animal. Saliva becomes infectious a few days prior to the onset of clinical signs. Infection occurs primarily via bite wounds, or infected saliva entering an open cut or wound or mucous membranes, such as those in the mouth, nasal cavity, or eyes. Occasional, albeit rare, transmission by inhalation of infected aerosol has been described.

The incubation period varies from a few days to 6 months. Clinical observations may only lead to a suspicion of rabies because signs of the disease are not pathognomonic and may vary greatly from one animal to another. The only way to undertake a reliable diagnosis is to identify the virus or viral antigen / viral RNA using laboratory tests.The disease has important social costs due to human mortality and high economic consequences due to the losses in livestock and the cost of the implementation of preventive and control measures in both animals and humans.

Method Real-Time RT-PCR
Sample Type
Swab / Secretion (Respiratory), Tissue (Brain), Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C and delivered within 24h of collection.
Specimens must be sent in RNA Preservative media. Please contact MBG Lab in advance for correct package and transport requirements.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPV-195
Description SARS-CoV-2 is a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family of Coronaviruses. The virus is primarily transmitted through droplets released when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks in close vicinity to other individuals. People can also become infected by touching surfaces that have been contaminated with the droplets of infected persons. The time from exposure to onset of symptoms is typically around five days but may range from two to fourteen days.

Common symptoms include fever, cough, fatigue, shortness of breath, and loss of sense of smell and taste. Complications may include pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure, septic shock, and blood clots.

Method Real-Time RT-PCR.
Sample Type
Swab/ Secretion (Respiratory), Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C and delivered within 24 hours.
Specimens must be sent in RNA Preservative media. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPT-049
Description Human African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is a vector-borne parasitic disease. It is caused by infection with protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Trypanosoma. They are transmitted to humans by tsetse fly (Glossina genus) bites which have acquired their infection from human beings or from animals harbouring human pathogenic parasites. Human African trypanosomiasis takes 2 forms, depending on the parasite involved.

This assay is used for the detection of both T. evansi and T.brucei, however, it can not be used to differentiate between the two subtypes.

Pathogens Tested
  • Trypanosoma brucei gambiense is found in 24 countries in west and central Africa. This form currently accounts for over 98% of reported cases of sleeping sickness and causes a chronic infection. A person can be infected for months or even years without major signs or symptoms of the disease. When more evident symptoms emerge, the patient is often already in an advanced disease stage where the central nervous system is affected.
  • Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense is found in 13 countries in eastern and southern Africa. Nowadays, this form represents under 2% of reported cases and causes an acute infection. First signs and symptoms are observed a few months or weeks after infection. The disease develops rapidly and invades the central nervous system. Only Uganda presents both forms of the disease, but in separate zones.

Method Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
EDTA blood, Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPG-076
Description Viral gastroenteritis is an in vitro test for the qualitative detection of virus nucleic acid in stool samples as an aid to the evaluation of infections with norovirus G1, norovirus G2, astrovirus, rotavirus, adenovirus and sapovirus.

Pathogens TestedNoroviruses (NoroG1 and NoroG2) are single-stranded RNA viruses without an outer envelope. They are an important cause of sporadic cases and outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. They infect all age groups, with particularly severe disease occurring in young children, elderly patients, and persons with preexisting conditions. The incubation time is approximately 24hrs and individuals can shed the viruses in faeces for up to 2 weeks after the infection. They can survive outside of a person on surfaces for several days. Their mode of transmission may be foodborne, waterborne or person-to-person contact via virus containing aerosols and the faecal- oral route. Less than 20 virus particles can be infectious. There is no therapy available.

Rotaviruses (Rota) carry dsRNA encapsulated in a complex virus particle and are the most common cause of severe, dehydrating, gastroenteritis among children worldwide. Infections in adults and the elderly are less frequent but have been documented. Rotavirus has a short incubation period of 1 to 3 days. The virus is shed in faeces for an average for 4 days although excretion of virus for up to 30 days has been reported in immunocompromised patients. The mode of transmission can be faecal-oral, through contaminated water and food. As little as 10 virus particles can cause an infection. Different vaccines are on the market.

Astroviruses (Astro) are a significant cause of acute gastroenteritis, resulting in outbreaks of diarrhea. The virus nucleic acid consists of non-encapsulated ssRNA. Most infections are mild and self limiting, however, the most severe affected group are children under the age of 2 years. Studies implement that the incidence of Astrovirus infections are highly underestimated based on the lack of reliable diagnostic methods. It is suggested that Astrovirus ranks second place after Rotavirus in gastorenteritis in children. Transmission occurs usually from person to person. Symptoms manifest within 2 to 3 days post-infection and last for a few days. Outbreaks usually appear in the winter and spring within the temperate climate zones.

Adenoviruses (HAdV) consist of non-enveloped dsDNA and are a common cause of respiratory illness. The symptoms can range from the common cold to pneumonia, croup, and bronchitis. Depending on the type, adenoviruses can cause other illnesses such as gastroenteritis, conjunctivitis, cystitis, and less commonly, neurological diseases. Adenoviral infections affect infants and young children much more frequently than adults. Severe, disseminated infection can occur in immunocompromised subjects. Adenoviruses are responsible for 15% of children that are hospitalized with gastroenteritis.

Sapoviruses (Sapo) are single-stranded non-enveloped RNA viruses belonging to the Caliciviridae family. Sapo were first detected in 1977 as the cause of a gastroenteritis outbreak in a home for infants in Sapporo, Japan. Sapo is increasingly recognized to be associated with sporadic gastroenteritis in infants and adults in the community, hospitals and other health care facilities. Although Sapo-associated diarrhea is generally mild, severe cases can occur. Transmission occurs via fecal-oral route and consumption of contaminated food. Human Sapo strains cannot be reliably cultivated in vitro, and currently, RT-PCR is the most widely used method for their detection.

Method Real-Time RT-PCR
Sample Type
Stool.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool should be transported to MBG Lab within 24h of collection.
Specimens must be sent in RNA Preservative media. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPM-077
Description Viral meningitis is an infection of the meninges (a thin lining covering the brain and spinal cord) by any one of a number of different viruses. Viral meningitis is also often referred to as aseptic meningitis. The symptoms may include fever, headache, stiff neck and fatigue. Rash, sore throat and intestinal symptoms may also occur.The most common viruses to cause viral meningitis are enteroviruses (intestinal), mumps, arboviruses, herpes family viruses, varicella viruses, Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, Adenovirus. Because a number of different viruses are capable of causing viral meningitis, the manner in which the virus is spread depends upon the type of virus involved. Some are spread by person-to-person contact; others can be spread by insects.

Pathogens TestedHerpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV1 and HSV2), are two members of the herpesviridae family. They contain a large double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome. Primary Herpes simplex infection is usually acquired in childhood and is most often asymptomatic; after the primary infection, the virus becomes latent in neurons of cranial nerve ganglia (HSV1) or sacral ganglia (HSV2). Reactivation from ganglia produces cold sores or fever blisters in the mouth or on the lip, less often infections of the eye (herpes keratitis), and rarely encephalitis. Symptomatic HSV1 infections are usually manifested as recurrent orolabial and facial lesions. HSV2 is the cause of most genital herpes and is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Herpes can be spread, regardless of symptoms, between sexual partners and from mother to newborn, and is known to increase a persons risk of contracting HIV. Herpes viruses establish lifelong infections, and the virus cannot be eradicated from the body.

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a alphaherpesvirus, contains a large double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Unlike HSV1, it is often asymptomatic in primary infections. Primary VZV infection can result in chickenpox (varicella) characterized by malaise, fever and an extensive vesicular rash which can lead to pneumonia in adults, particularly in pregnant woman. Even after clinical symptoms of varicella have resolved, VZV remains dormant in the nervous system of the host in the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia. In about 10-20% of cases, VZV reactivates later in life producing a disease known as herpes zoster or shingles. Serious complications of shingles include post-herpetic neuralgia, myelitis, eye infections or zoster sine herpete.

Enteroviruses (EV) are a genus of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses including polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and other enteroviruses. Non-polio enteroviruses are very common. They are second only to the "common cold" viruses, rhinoviruses, as the most common viral infectious agents in humans. EV is most likely to occur during the summer and fall. EV affects millions of people worldwide each year, and are often found in the respiratory secretions (e.g., saliva, sputum, or nasal mucus) and stool of an infected person.

Human parechoviruses (HPeV) are positive ssRNA viruses and are prevalent in young children. They have been associated with respiratory disease, including upper and lower respiratory tract disease. It has also been claimed that they commonly cause mild gastroenteritis and, less frequently, meningitis and neonatal sepsis.

Mumps virus (MV), a member of the paramyxovirus family, is a negative-strand RNA virus. The incubation period of mumps is 14 to 18 days. Mumps infection results in an acute illness with symptoms including fever, headache, and myalgia, followed by swelling of the salivary glands. As many as 20% of mumps infections are asymptomatic. Complications of mumps can include meningitis, deafness, pancreatitis, orchitis, and first-trimester abortion. A vaccine for mumps is available in combination with measles and rubella vaccines, or in combination with measles, rubella and varicella.

Method Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
CSF, Culture, EDTA Blood, Stool.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool should be transported to MBG Lab within 24h of collection.
Specimens must be sent in RNA Preservative media. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPW-078
Description West Nile virus (WNV) is a positive-sense, ssRNA virus of the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. It causes West Nile fever, which is a mosquito-borne viral disease and can affect birds, humans and horses causing inapparent infection, mild febrile illness, meningitis, encephalitis, or death. The arbovirus is maintained in nature by cycling through birds and mosquitoes. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of mosquito-borne disease in the continental United States. It is most commonly spread to people by the bite of an infected mosquito. Cases of WNV occur during mosquito season, which starts in the summer and continues through fall. There are no vaccines to prevent or medications to treat WNV in people. Fortunately, most people infected with WNV do not feel sick. About 1 in 5 people who are infected develop a fever and other symptoms. About 1 out of 150 infected people develop a serious, sometimes fatal, illness. 

Method Real-Time RT-PCR.
Sample Type
EDTA blood, Tissue, Culture, Serum, CSF.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Specimens must be sent in RNA Preservative media. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Accredited
Assay Code HPZ-079
Description The Zika virus belongs to Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus, and is related to the dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and West Nile viruses. Like other flaviviruses, Zika virus is enveloped and icosahedral and has a nonsegmented, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome.

The infection, known as Zika fever is spread to people primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito and often causes no or only mild symptoms, similar to a mild form of dengue fever. The most common symptoms of Zika are fever, rash, joint pain, and conjunctivitis (red eyes). People usually dont get sick enough to go to the hospital, and they very rarely die of Zika. However, Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause a serious birth defect called microcephaly, as well as other severe fetal brain defects. Zika infections in adults can result in Guillain-Barr syndrome. Once a person has been infected, he or she is likely to be protected from future infections.

In May 2015, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) issued an alert regarding the first confirmed Zika virus infection in Brazil. On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared Zika virus a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC).

Method Real-Time RT-PCR.
Sample Type
Accredited : Serum.
Alternatives : EDTA blood, Saliva.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links




Molecular Biology & Genetics Laboratory

Pathogen Identification


Molecular based methods have advanced the laboratory testing to faster and better diagnostics. PCR methods, microarray and next generation sequencing have provided speed and high level of accuracy. Molecular biology based methods are sensitive and quick to detect microbial pathogens in various clinical specimens. We offer molecular detection of pathogenic viruses, bacteria and parasites from clinical specimens. MBG Lab is ISO 15189 accredited and benefits from a stand-alone containment Level 3 facility where samples for highly contagious pathogen are received and processed.


All Bacteria Virus Fungi Parasite


Validated
Assay Code See Below
Description Aspergillus is a type of fungus that is found indoors and outdoors. Most people breathe in Aspergillus spores every day without getting sick. However, health problems may arise in people with weakened immune systems or having underlying diseases. Aspergillosis, most often caused by Aspergillus fumigatus, occurs in humans in chronic or acute forms which are clinically very distinct. Most cases of acute aspergillosis occur in people with severely compromised immune systems, e.g. those undergoing bone marrow transplantation. Chronic colonization or infection can cause complications in people with underlying respiratory illnesses, such as asthma, cystic fibrosis, sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The most frequently identified pathogens are Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus, ubiquitous organisms capable of living under extensive environmental stress.

Aspergillus fumigatus is the primary cause of invasive aspergillosis. Triazole antifungals are used to treat patients with high-risk conditions such as stem cell and organ transplant recipients as mortality exceeds 50%. However, triazole-resistant A. fumigatus infections frequently occur and are associated with increased treatment failure and mortality. Of particular concern are resistant A.fumigatus isolates carrying either TR34/L98H or TR46/Y121F/T289A genetic resistance markers in the azole target (Cyp51A) gene and these are mostly associated with triazole fungicide use. Reports of these triazole-resistant A.fumigatus strains are more common in Europe than in the US.Understanding the prevalence of azole resistant patient isolates is important to guide clinical and public health decision-making.

Pathogens Tested
  • Aspergillus fumigatus/ terreus/ flavus
  • Azole-resistance profiling of Cyp51A gene

Method Aspergillus fumigatus / terreus / flavus by Multi Real-Time PCR (This assay includes the detection and differentiation of Aspergillus fumigatus / terreus / flavus)
Azole-resistance profiling of Cyp51A gene (This assay detects selected mutations in the Cyp51A gene related to azole-resistance, by PCR and sequencing).
Sample Type
Culture, EDTA Blood, Swab / Secretion (Respiratory), Tissue.
Transport Condition Sample should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 10 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 7 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPB-072
Description Bacterial gastroenteritis is inflammation of the stomach and intestines caused by bacteria. Salmonella, Shigella, and Campylobacter species are the top 3 leading causes of bacterial diarrhea worldwide. Organisms such as E coli and Clostridium species are normal enteric flora, pathogenic strains of which can cause gastroenteritis. Symptoms include watery diarrhea, Nausea and vomiting, Fever and chills, abdominal pain, Blood in the stool (in severe cases).

Pathogens TestedEnterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (VTEC) is a subset of pathogenic E. coli that can cause diarrhoea or hemorrhagic colitis in humans. It is a food-borne pathogen.

Campylobacter are curved, rod-shaped, non-spore forming, Gram-negative microaerophilic bacteria predominantly found in animal faeces. Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common causes of human gastroenteritis globally. The routes of transmission are faecal-oral, person-to-person sexual contact, ingestion of contaminated food or water, and the eating of raw meat. It produces an inflammatory, sometimes bloody diarrhoea, periodontitis or dysentery syndrome, mostly including cramps, fever and pain.

Clostridium difficile , often called C. difficile or C. diff, is a bacterium that can cause symptoms ranging from diarrhoea to life-threatening inflammation of the colon. Clostridium difficile is best known for causing antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD). C. difficile bacteria are found throughout the environment in soil, air, water, human and animal faeces, and food products such as processed meats.

Yersinia enterocolitica is a bacterial species in the family Enterobacteriaceae that most often causes enterocolitis, acute diarrhoea, terminal ileitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis, and pseudoappendicitis but, if it spreads systemically, can also result in fatal sepsis. Symptoms of Y enterocolitica infection typically include diarrhoea, low-grade fever, abdominal pain and vomiting. Yersiniae are usually transmitted to humans by insufficiently cooked pork or contaminated water.

Shigella is a genus of Gram-negative, non-spore forming rod-shaped bacteria closely related to Escherichia coli and Salmonella and the causative agent of human shigellosis. Shigella infection typically occurs via ingestion (faecal oral contamination). It typically causes cramps, nausea, vomiting and dysentery. Some strains produce enterotoxin and shigatoxin, similar to the verotoxin of enterohemorragic Escherichia coli. Both shigatoxin and verotoxin are associated with causing hemolytic uremic syndrome.

Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped, Gram-negative, non-spore forming, predominantly motile Enterobacteriae. A salmonella infection is a food borne illness caused by the salmonella bacteria carried by some animals, which can be transmitted from kitchen surfaces and can be found in water, soil, animal feces, raw meats, and eggs. Salmonella infections typically affect the intestines (Salmonellosis), causing vomiting, fever, and other symptoms that usually resolve without medical treatment.
Salmonella are closely related to the Escherichia genus and are found worldwide in warm- and cold-blooded animals, in humans, and in nonliving habitats. They cause illnesses in humans and many animals, such as typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, and the food-borne disease salmonellosis. Salmonella can survive several weeks in a dry environment and several months in water; thus, they are frequently found in polluted water; contamination from the excrement of carrier animals being particularly important.

Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) causes an infection that is identical to Shigellosis, with profuse diarrhea and high fever. The illness is characterized by the appearance of blood and mucus in the stools of infected individuals or by a condition called colitis. Dysentery caused by EIEC usually occurs within 12 to 72 hours following the ingestion of contaminated food.

Method Real-Time PCR
Sample Type
Stool.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool should be transported to MBG Lab within 24h of collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code See Below
Description Brucellosis is a widespread zoonosis mainly transmitted from cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and camels through direct contact with blood, placenta, fetuses or uterine secretions, or through consumption of contaminated raw animal products (especially unpasteurized milk and soft cheese). In endemic areas, human brucellosis has serious public health consequences.There are various types of brucellosis: bovine brucellosis, which primarily affects cattle, caused by Brucella abortus, and can also affect humans.

Brucella melitensisis is the most prevalent species causing human brucellosis worldwide, owing in part to difficulties in immunizing free-ranging goats and sheep. In countries where eradication in animals (through vaccination and/or elimination of infected animals) is not feasible, prevention of human infection is primarily based on raising awareness, food-safety measures, occupational hygiene and laboratory safety.

In most countries, brucellosis is a notifiable disease. The incubation period is highly variable, usually 2-4 weeks, can be 1 week to 2 months or longer. Symptoms include acute undulating fever, headache, arthralgia, night sweats, fatigue and anorexia.

Pathogens Tested
  • HPB-023 : Brucella abortus (This Assay includes the detection of Brucella species and Brucella abortus)
  • HPB-024 : Brucella melitensis (This Assay includes the detection of Brucella species and Brucella melitensis)
  • HPB-025 : Brucella Species (This Assay includes the detection of Brucella species. This Assay can detect many Brucella species including B.abortus, B.melitensis, B.suis and B. canis)

Method Real-Time PCR
Sample Type
EDTA blood, Tissue (Fetal), Culture, Swab/ Secretion (Genital), Milk, Semen.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Milk should be transported preferably at -20°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code See Below
Description Campylobacteriosis is a bacterial disease caused by Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli. Campylobacter usually causes a mild to severe infection of the gastrointestinal system, including watery or bloody diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting. Sometimes animals can spread Campylobacter to humans. Most people get campylobacteriosis from contaminated food. However, animals can have Campylobacter in their feces (stool). If people touch contaminated feces, they can get sick. Animals that may carry Campylobacter in their feces include farm animals, cats, and dogs. Animals do not have to be ill to pass Campylobacter to humans. People with compromised immune systems, including those undergoing treatments for cancer, organ transplant patients, and people with HIV/AIDS, have a higher risk than others of getting Campylobacter infection from food and animals.

Pathogens Tested
  • HPC-029 : Campylobacter coli
  • HPC-028 : Campylobacter jejuni

Method Real -Time PCR.
Sample Type
Culture , Stool, Swab/ Secretion (Rectal).
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool should be transported to MBG Lab within 24h of collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days. Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPC-191
Description Chikungunya virus is most often spread to people by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. It is rarely transmitted from mother to newborn around the time of birth. Prior to 2013, Chikungunya virus cases and outbreaks had been identified in countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific Oceans. In late 2013, the first local transmission of chikungunya virus in the Americas was identified in Caribbean countries and territories. Local transmission means that mosquitoes in the area have been infected with the virus and are spreading it to people. Symptoms usually begin 3-7 days after being bitten by an infected mosquito. The most common symptoms of infection are fever and joint pain. Other symptoms may include headache, muscle pain, joint swelling or rash. There is no vaccine to prevent or medicine to treat chikungunya virus infection. Travelers can protect themselves by preventing mosquito bites. During the first 8 days of illness, chikungunya viral RNA can often be identified in serum.

Dengue viruses are spread to people through the bite of an infected Aedes species (Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus) mosquito. A pregnant woman already infected with dengue can pass the virus to her fetus during pregnancy or around the time of birth. Dengue has emerged as a worldwide problem since the 1960s. The disease is common in many popular tourist destinations in the Caribbean (including Puerto Rico), Central and South America, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Mild symptoms of dengue can be confused with other illnesses that cause fever, aches and pains, or a rash. The most common symptom of dengue is fever with any of the following: nausea, vomiting, rash, aches and pains (eye pain, typically behind the eyes, muscle, joint, or bone pain). Most people will recover after about a week. There is no specific medication to treat dengue. A blood test is the only way to confirm the diagnosis.

Pathogens Tested
  • Chikungunya
  • Dengue Virus

Method Real-Time RT-PCR.
Sample Type
EDTA blood, Serum, Urine.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPC-031
Description Chlamydia trachomatis: is the most commonly known species and the causative agent of Chlamydia, the sexually transmitted disease. This bacterium can also be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy and infect the eyes causing conjunctivitis. The genital infection causes urethritis, epididymitis and prostatitis in males and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) in females with an increased risk of contracting HIV. Transmission of the bacteria occurs via contact with infected bodily fluids which then infect mucosal membranes.

Chlamydophila pneumonia: is a etiologic agent of respiratory tract infection, mainly pneumonia. C.pneumoniae is the causative agent of an atypical pneumonia (walking pneumonia) similar to those caused by Mycoplasma pneumonia and Legionella pneumonia. Chlamydophila pneumonia can cause bronchitis, sinusitis, pneumonia and possibly atherosclerosis. The organism is transmitted person- to-person by respiratory droplets and causes bronchitis, sinusitis and pneumonia.

Chlamydia psittaci: causes psittacosis, and occasionally conjuctivitis and myocarditis in man, and infection associated with abortion, arthritis, conjuctivitis, encephalomyelitis and enteritis. Infection is usually asymptomatic. Mild flu-like illness and Reactive arthritis may appear. Human infection with C. psittaci usually occurs when a person inhales organisms that have been aerosolized from dried feces or respiratory tract secretions of infected birds.

Method Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
Swab / Secretion (Respiratory), Swab / Secretion (Conjunctival), Stool, EDTA blood, Culture, Tissue, CSF.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPC-032
Description Clostridium perfringens (formerly known as C. welchii, or Bacillus welchii) is a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming pathogenic bacterium of the genus Clostridium. C. perfringens is ever present in nature and can be found as a normal component of decaying vegetation, marine sediment, the intestinal tract of humans and other vertebrates, insects, and soil. It has the shortest reported generation time of any organism at 6.3 minutes in thioglycollate medium.

Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) is one of the most common causes of food poisoning. Cooking kills the growing C. perfringens cells that cause food poisoning, but not necessarily the spores that can grow into new cells. If cooked food is not promptly served or refrigerated, the spores can grow and produce new cells. These bacteria thrive between 40-140°F (the Danger Zone). This means that they grow quickly at room temperature, but they cannot grow at refrigerator or freezer temperatures. Since C. perfringens forms spores that can withstand cooking temperatures, if cooked food is let stand for long enough, germination can ensue and infective bacterial colonies develop. Symptoms typically include abdominal cramping, diarrhea; vomiting and fever are usual. The whole course usually resolves within 24 hours. Very rare, fatal cases of clostridial necrotizing enteritis (also known as pigbel) have been known to involve "Type C" strains of the organism, which produce a potently ulcerative beta-toxin.

This assay can detect alpha, beta-2, epsilon, iota and enterotoxin.

Method Multi Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
Stool, Swab / Secretion (Rectal), Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPC-033
Description Coxiella burnetii is a gram negative coccobacillus that causes Q-Fever disease in animals and humans. It belongs to a group of organisms known as Rickettsia. The organism may be found in the birth products (i.e. placenta, amniotic fluid), urine, feces, and milk of infected animals.

In humans, Q Fever is generally a self-limiting illness. People get infected by breathing in dust that has been contaminated by infected animal feces, urine, milk, and birth products that contain Coxiella burnetii. Direct contact (e.g. touching, being licked) with an animal is not required to become sick with Q fever. People may also get sick with Q fever by eating contaminated, unpasteurized dairy products. Rarely, Q fever has been spread through blood transfusion, from a pregnant woman to her fetus, or through sex.

This assay is used for the detection of both C. burnetti and C. symbiont; however, it cannot be used to differentiate between the two subtypes

Pathogens Tested
  • Coxiella burnetti
  • Coxiella symbiont;

Method Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
EDTA blood, Tissue (placental), Culture, Milk, Stool, Urine, Amniotic fluid.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool should be transported to MBG Lab within 24h of collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days. Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Accredited
Assay Code HPF-071
Description Ebola and Marburg virus are genera within the family Filoviridae. Genus Marburg­ virus contains a single species termed Marburg virus (MARV). Genus Ebola virus contains five species: Bundibugyo ebolavirus (BEBOV), Reston ebolavirus (RESTV), Sudan ebolavirus (SEBOV), Tai Forest ebolavirus (TAFV) and Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV).

All known Ebola and Marburg virus species are endemic in Africa except RESTV which is endemic in South-East Asia. Natural hosts of filoviruses are fruit-bats. After transmission to humans, filoviruses can cause severe hemorrhagic fever with a relatively high mortality rate of 20-90% (depending on the species and strain in the single outbreaks). The mode of transmission is often difficult to determine. Hunting, slaughtering and consumption of infected wild animals are likely ways of introduction of the virus into the human population. Direct contact to bats has also been shown to be a possible way of infection.

Symptoms are rather unspecific at the beginning of the disease including general malaise, fever and pain in different body parts. As the disease progresses, more severe symptoms like vomiting, diarrhea, decreased function of the liver and kidney are seen. Infectious virus titer and RNA-titer during acute disease are usually high and the level of viremia is negatively correlated with the outcome of the disease.

Pathogens Tested
  • Zaire ebola virus
  • Marburg virus

Method Real-Time RT-PCR
Sample Type
Accredited : EDTA Blood, Serum, Body fluids.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Please contact MBG Lab in advance for the correct package and transport requirements.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPG-073
Description STD Panel is an in vitro test for the detection of viral and bacterial DNA as an aid in the Evaluation of infections by Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrheae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Herpes simplex virus 1 & 2, Treponema pallidum. These infections are sexually transmitted and can be life threatening if left untreated.

To prevent getting a sexually transmitted disease, or STD, always avoid sex with anyone who has genital sores, a rash, discharge, or other symptoms. Use of barrier devices during intercourse can prevent the spread of STD.

Pathogens TestedChlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacteria commonly causing sexually transmitted disease that can lead to infertility. Usually asymptomatic in women, some develop pelvic inflammatory disease, unusual vaginal bleeding or discharge. In males symptoms such as infectious urethritis, painful or burning sensation when urinating, an unusual discharge from the penis, swollen or tender testicles, or fever are seen. Occasionally infection may spread to the epididymis (storage tubes for sperm overlying the testes in the testicle), which can be very painful and may lead to infertility. Chlamydia can also be passed from an infected mother to her baby during vaginal childbirth.

Neisseria gonorrhoeae - Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as gonococci, is a species of Gram-negative bacteria responsible for the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea in both men and women. Often, gonorrhea has no symptoms. Most people are not aware that they have the infection - especially women. Some women may have symptoms such as vaginal discharge, lower abdominal pain or pain with intercourse. If left untreated it can lead to long term complication such as pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy and infertility. Most men who are infected have symptoms such as urethritis associated with burning with urination and discharge from the penis. In both men and women if gonorrhea is left untreated, it may spread locally causing epididymitis throughout the body, affecting joints and heart valves. Gonorrhea can also be passed from a woman to her fetus during birth.

Mycoplasma genitalium - Mycoplasma genitalium is a small parasitic bacterium which lives on cilated epithelial cells of the genital tract and is sexually transmitted. In women, symptoms such as vaginal itching, burning while urinating, discharge, pain during intercourse may appear. In the long term, this infection is suspected to cause pelvic inflammatory disease and cervicitis. In men it is a major agent in urogenital tract disease.

Herpes simplex virus 1 & 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), also known as Human herpes virus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and -2), are two members of the herpes virus family, Herpesviridae, that cause genital ulcers. HSV is a sexually transmitted disease. HSV-1 is associated with many clinical manifestations including gingivostomatitis, eye infections, and various skin complications including cold sores, whitlow and super infection of eczema. HSV-2 is sexually transmitted and produces painful sores, usually in the genital area.HSV can also cause meningitis or encephalitis. Sometimes genital herpes infection can lead to miscarriage or premature birth. Herpes infection can be passed from mother to child resulting in a potentially fatal infection (neonatal herpes).

Treponema pallidum is a spirochaete bacterium with subspecies that cause treponemal diseases such as syphilis, bejel, pinta which spread through close sexual contact. Syphilis is a highly contagious disease spread primarily by sexual activity. The bacteria pass through intact mucous membranes and abraded skin; they are then carried by the blood stream to every organ in the body. The symptoms of syphilis depend on the stage of the disease. Many people do not have symptoms. In general, painless sores and swollen lymph nodes are possible symptoms of primary syphilis. Those with secondary syphilis may also have fever, fatigue, rash, aches and pains, and loss of appetite, among other symptoms. Tertiary syphilis causes heart, brain, and nervous system problems. The organism can also be transmitted to a fetus by transplacental passage during the later stages of pregnancy, giving rise to congenital syphilis.

Method Real-Time PCR
Sample Type
Swab / Secretion (Genital) , Swab / Secretion (Rectal), Swab / Secretion (Abscess), Urine.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Please, contact MBG Lab for more information

Research Use Only
Assay Code HPH-074
Description The Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a member of the Hepadnaviridae with an outer lipid envelope and an icosahedral nucleocapsid core composed of protein. HBV contains a small, partially double-stranded, relaxed circular DNA genome. HBV infection is a global public health problem, with over 300 million chronically infected patients worldwide. Chronic HBV infection are associated with a high risk of developing severe liver diseases, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and results in a million deaths. Symptoms of acute infection include liver inflammation, vomiting, jaundice, and abdominal pain. Modes of transmission are the same as those for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but the hepatitis B virus is 50 to 100 times more infectious. Hepatitis B is usually spread when blood, semen, or another body fluid from a person infected with the Hepatitis B virus enters the body of someone who is not infected. This can happen through sexual contact with an infected person or sharing needles, syringes, or other drug-injection equipment. Hepatitis B can also be passed from an infected mother to her baby at birth.

Being able to detect and quantify the DNA allows an estimation of infectivity and the likelihood of progression to severe chronic disease. It is also useful to monitor the success of treatment. Occasionally people can be HBV DNA positive without other serological markers such as HBsAg, for example in the first two weeks of the infection. The best way to prevent Hepatitis B is by getting vaccinated.

Method Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
EDTA Blood, Serum.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Please, contact MBG Lab for more information

Accredited
Assay Code See Below
Description There are three types of influenza viruses: A, B, and C. Influenza A viruses are members of the family Orthomyxoviridae and are further classified by subtype on the basis of the two main surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA).
There are 18 different hemagglutinin subtypes H1- H18 and 11 different neuraminidase subtypes ( N1- N11). These two glycoproteins both recognize the sialic acid and have complementary activities, the HA binds the sialic acid through its receptor-binding site, the NA is a receptor-destroying enzyme that cleaves 2-3 and 2-6-linked sialic acids. Therefore, the functional HA/NA balance is a critical factor for a good viral fitness and plays a major role in overcoming the host barrier and the efficiency of sustained human-to-human transmission.

Influenza A (FluA) is associated with acute respiratory infections of varying severity, ranging from asymptomatic infection to fatal disease. Typical influenza symptoms include fever, sore throat, cough, headache and myalgia. Complications include primary influenza viral pneumonitis, bacterial pneumonia and exacerbation of underlying chronic conditions. Illness tends to be most severe in the elderly, in infants and young children, and in the immunocompromised. The swine-lineage influenza A virus subtype H1N1 A(H1N1)swl) was reported in spring 2009. In June 2009, the WHO declared an H1N1 pandemic, moving the alert level to phase 6, marking the first global pandemic since the 1968 Hong Kong flu. Influenza B (FluB) viruses cause the same spectrum of disease as influenza A. However, Influenza B is less common than influenza A and does not cause pandemics.

Influenza is transmitted through the air by coughs or sneezes, creating aerosols containing the virus. Annual immunization is strongly recommended for older people, pregnant women, those at risk and those who work or live with vulnerable groups. There are nine known subtypes of H5 viruses (H5N1, H5N2, H5N3, H5N4, H5N5, H5N6, H5N7, H5N8, and H5N9).The first confirmed human case of infection with the highly pathogenic H5N1 strain of AIV was reported in Hong Kong in 1997, the first recognized case of virus transmission directly from poultry to humans; a second outbreak of H5N1 viruses occurred in 2003, and continuing occurrences have been reported (Yamaji et al., 2015).
Sporadic H5 virus infection of humans has occurred, such as with Asian lineage HPAI (highly pathogenic) H5N1 viruses currently circulating among poultry in Asia and the Middle East. Human infection of H5N1 virus infections have been reported in 16 countries, often resulting in severe pneumonia and greater than 50% mortality. Asian HPAI H5N1 viruses have infected the respiratory tract of humans, causing severe illness (e.g. pneumonia and respiratory failure) and death in some people.

There are nine known subtypes of H7 viruses (H7N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N4, H7N5, H7N6, H7N7, H7N8, and H7N9). H7 virus infection in humans is uncommon. The most frequently identified H7 viruses associated with human infection are Asian lineage avian influenza A(H7N9) viruses, which were first detected in China in 2013. While human infections are rare, these have commonly resulted in severe respiratory illness and death. In addition to Asian lineage H7N9 viruses, H7N2, H7N3, H7N7 virus infections have been reported. These viruses have primarily caused mild to moderate illness in people, with symptoms that include conjunctivitis and/or upper respiratory tract symptoms.

There are nine known subtypes of H9 viruses (H9N1, H9N2, H9N3, H9N4, H9N5, H9N6, H9N7, H9N8, and H9N9). All H9 viruses identified worldwide in wild birds and poultry are LPAI viruses (low pathogenicity). LPAI viruses are usually associated with mild disease in poultry. H9N2 virus has been detected in bird populations in Asia, Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Rare, sporadic H9N2 virus infections in people have been reported to generally cause mild upper respiratory tract illness.


Pathogens Tested
  • HPI-070 : Influenza Panel
  • HPI-017 : Influenza N1
  • HPH-016 : Influenza H5
  • HPH-015 : Influenza H7
  • HPH-014 : Influenza H9

Method Real-Time RT PCR
Sample Type
Nasopharyngeal /throat swab (2 swabs), Nasal aspirate, Nasal wash, Broncheoalveolar lavage, Sputum, Bronchial wash, Tracheal aspirate, Lung tissue, Viral culture.
Specimens must be sent in RNA Preservative media.
Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT. Urgent Samples must be delivered before 11:00 AM and will be charged double.

Links

Validated
Assay Code See Below
Description Legionella is a pathogenic group of gram negative bacterium. It thrives in central heating and air conditioning systems. Legionella pneumophila is the primary human pathogenic bacterium and is the causative agent of legionellosis or Legionnaires disease. Legionella pneumophila invades and replicates in macrophages. Patients with Legionnaires disease usually have pneumonia, fever, chills, and a cough, which may be dry or may produce sputum. Some patients also have muscle aches, headache, tiredness, loss of appetite, loss of coordination (ataxia), and occasionally diarrhoea and vomiting. Confusion and impaired cognition and low normal heart rate may also occur. Test may reveal the patient's renal functions, liver functions and electrolytes are deranged, including hyponatremia. It is not transmitted from person to person. It is transmitted by inhalation of aerosolized water and/or soil contaminated with the bacteria.

Legionella longbeachae causes Pontiac fever. Pontiac fever is an acute, non-fatal respiratory disease that causes a mild upper respiratory infection. Symptoms can include fever, headaches and muscle aches but unlike Legionnaires' disease Pontiac Fever does not cause pneumonia. Like other Legionella species, person-to-person transmission has not been documented. However, unlike other species the primary transmission mode is inhalation of dust from contaminated compost or soil that contains the organism causing legionellosis.

Pathogens Tested
  • HPL-034 : Legionella pneumophila (This assay includes the detection of Legionella species and subtype Legionella pneumophila.)
  • HPL-035 : Legionella Species (This assay includes the detection of Legionella species. This Assay can detect Legionella pneumophila, L. adelaidensis, L. anisa, L. birminghamensis, L. bozemanii , L. brunensis, L. cherii , L. cincinnatiensis, L. dumoffii, L. erythra , L. feelei, L. gormanii, L. gratiana, L. hackeliae, L.israelensis, L. jamestownensis, L. jordanis, L. lansingensis, L. longbeachae, L. maceachernii , L. micdadei , L. moravica, L. oakridgensis paucimobilis , L. parisiensis, L. quinlivanii, L. rubrilucens, L. sainthelensis, L. spiritensis, L. steigerwaltii , L. taurinensis, L. tucsonensis, L. wadsworthii)

Method Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
Water, Swab / Secretion (Respiratory), Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPL-036
Description Leptospirosis is a transmissible disease of animals and humans caused by infection with any of the pathogenic members of the genus Leptospira. It is considered the most common zoonosis in the world and is associated with rodents in settings of poor sanitation, agricultural occupations, and increasingly "adventure" sports or races involving fresh water, mud, or soil exposure. Humans can become infected through: Contact with urine (or other body fluids, except saliva) from infected animals. Contact with water, soil, or food contaminated with the urine of infected animals. The bacteria can enter the body through skin or mucous membranes (eyes, nose, or mouth), especially if the skin is broken from a cut or scratch. Drinking contaminated water can also cause infection. Outbreaks of leptospirosis are usually caused by exposure to contaminated water, such as floodwaters. Person to person transmission is rare.

Method Real-Time PCR
Sample Type
EDTA blood, Swab / Secretion (Organ), Tissue, Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Accredited
Assay Code HPM-020
Description Coronaviruses are positive-stranded RNA viruses causing mainly respiratory and enteric disease in a range of animals and in humans. Four different human coronaviruses (hCoV) circulate at a global population level. These cause the common cold. The fifth important hCoV is SARS-CoV, which appeared for a limited time period during 2002 and 2003. It caused an outbreak affecting at least 8,000 people. During September 2012, health authorities were notified of several cases of severe hCoV infection caused by a novel virus type hCoV-EMC. The strain was redefined by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses into Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus MERS-CoV since it was first reported in Saudi Arabia.
MERS-CoV is a beta coronavirus. Most people infected with MERS-CoV developed severe acute respiratory illness with symptoms of fever, cough, and shortness of breath. MERS-CoV has been shown to spread between people who are in close contact.

Method Real-Time RT-PCR
Sample Type
Accredited : Swab / Secretion (Respiratory).
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Specimens must be sent in RNA Preservative media. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code See Below
Description Mycobacterium is a genus of Actinobacteria, family Mycobacteriaceae. Over 190 species are recognized in this genus. This genus includes pathogens known to cause serious diseases in mammals, including tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and leprosy (Mycobacterium leprae) in humans. Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic disease of animals and humans caused by Mycobacterium bovis.

Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria usually attack the lungs, but TB bacteria can attack any part of the body such as the kidney, spine, and brain. Not everyone infected with TB bacteria becomes sick. As a result, two TB-related conditions exist: latent TB infection (LTBI) and TB disease. If not treated properly, TB disease can be fatal. There are two kinds of tests that are used to detect TB bacteria in the body: the TB skin test (TST) and TB blood tests. A positive TB skin test or TB blood test only tells that a person has been infected with TB bacteria. It does not tell whether the person has latent TB infection (LTBI) or has progressed to TB disease. Other tests, such as a chest x-ray and a sample of sputum, are needed to see whether the person has TB disease.

Pathogens Tested
  • HPM-038 : Mycobacterium species (This assay includes the detection of Mycobacterium species. This assay can detect M. austroafricanum, M.avium subsp. avium,M.bovis BCG, M.chelonae, M.gordonae, M.fortuitum subsp.fortuitum, M.insubricum, M.intracellulare, M.kansasii, M.marium, M.mucogenicum, M.peregrinum, M.porcinum, M.scrofulaceum, M.setense, M.simiae, M.smegmatis, M.terrae, M.tuberculosis, M.ulcerans, M.xenopi)
  • HPM-100 : Mycobacterium tuberculosis (This assay includes the detection of Mycobacterium species and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.)

Method Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
EDTA blood, Blood on FTA card, Stool, Swab / Secretion (Respiratory), Tissue, Culture, CSF, Urine (for urinary TB).
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool should be transported to MBG Lab within 24h of collection.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPM-041
Description Mycoplasma refers to a genus of bacteria that are the smallest living cells known. They can be parasitic or saprotrophic.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae causes the disease mycoplasma pneumonia, a form of atypical bacterial pneumonia, and is related to cold agglutinin disease. It is also referred to as walking pneumonia. Symptoms include cough that may come in violent spasms but produce very little mucus, mild flu-like symptoms such as fever and chills, sore throat, headache, tiredness malaise and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). It is spread by contact with droplets from nose and throat of an infected person.

Mycoplasma genitalium is a small parasitic bacterium that lives on cilated epithelial cells of the genital tract and is sexually transmitted. In women symptoms such as vaginal itching, burning while urinating, discharge, pain during intercourse may appear. In the long term, this infection is suspected to cause pelvic inflammatory disease and cervicitis. In men, it is a major agent in urogenital tract disease.

Pathogens TestedThis assay can detect many Mycoplasma species including Mycoplasma agassizii,Mycoplasma anatis, Mycoplasma anseris, Mycoplasma arginini,Mycoplasma arthritidis,Mycoplasma auris, Mycoplasma buccale, Mycoplasma canadense,Mycoplasma cloacale,Mycoplasma collis, Mycoplasma columborale, Mycoplasma cricetuli, Mycoplasma cynos,Mycoplasma falconis,Mycoplasma faucium, Mycoplasma felis, Mycoplasma gateae,Mycoplasma gypis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma hyopharyngis, Mycoplasma hyorhinis,Mycoplasma hyosynoviae, Mycoplasma iguana, Mycoplasma lagogenitalium, Mycoplasma leonicaptivi, Mycoplasma molare, Mycoplasma mustelae, Mycoplasma neophronis,Mycoplasma neurolyticum, Mycoplasma orale, Mycoplasma phocicerebrale, Mycoplasma phocidae, Mycoplasma salivarium, Mycoplasma spumans, Mycoplasma timone, and Mycoplasma zalophi .

The assay cannot detect Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma pulmonis.

Method Real-Time PCR
Sample Type
Tissue, EDTA blood, Swab/ Secretion (Respiratory), Swab / Secretion (Conjunctival), Swab/ Secretion (Genital), CSF, Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPN-187
Description Nipah virus (NiV) is a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Henipavirus. Transmission of Nipah virus to humans may occur after direct contact with infected bats, infected pigs, or from other NiV infected people. Infection with Nipah virus is associated with encephalitis (inflammation of the brain). After exposure and an incubation period of 5 to 14 days, illness presents with 3-14 days of fever and headache, followed by drowsiness, disorientation and mental confusion. These signs and symptoms can progress to coma within 24-48 hours. Some patients have a respiratory illness during the early part of their infections, and half of the patients showing severe neurological signs showed also pulmonary signs.

During the Nipah virus disease outbreak in 1998-99, 265 patients were infected with the virus. About 40% of those patients who entered hospitals with serious nervous disease died from the illness. Long-term sequelae following Nipah virus infection have been noted, including persistent convulsions and personality changes. Latent infections with subsequent reactivation of Nipah virus and death have also been reported months and even years after exposure.

Method Real-Time RT-PCR.
Sample Type
EDTA Blood, CSF, Swab / Secretion (Respiratory), Urine.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Urine sample must be frozen after collection and delivered within 24 hours.
Specimens must be sent in RNA Preservative media. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPR-192
Description Rabies is a zoonotic disease that can affect all mammals. It is caused by Rabies lyssavirus, which is a neurotropic virus and is the type species of the Lyssavirus genus of the Rhabdoviridae family. These viruses are enveloped and have a single stranded negative-sense RNA genome. Rabies virus is primarily transmitted through the saliva of an infected animal. Saliva becomes infectious a few days prior to the onset of clinical signs. Infection occurs primarily via bite wounds, or infected saliva entering an open cut or wound or mucous membranes, such as those in the mouth, nasal cavity, or eyes. Occasional, albeit rare, transmission by inhalation of infected aerosol has been described.

The incubation period varies from a few days to 6 months. Clinical observations may only lead to a suspicion of rabies because signs of the disease are not pathognomonic and may vary greatly from one animal to another. The only way to undertake a reliable diagnosis is to identify the virus or viral antigen / viral RNA using laboratory tests.The disease has important social costs due to human mortality and high economic consequences due to the losses in livestock and the cost of the implementation of preventive and control measures in both animals and humans.

Method Real-Time RT-PCR
Sample Type
Swab / Secretion (Respiratory), Tissue (Brain), Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C and delivered within 24h of collection.
Specimens must be sent in RNA Preservative media. Please contact MBG Lab in advance for correct package and transport requirements.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPV-195
Description SARS-CoV-2 is a single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family of Coronaviruses. The virus is primarily transmitted through droplets released when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks in close vicinity to other individuals. People can also become infected by touching surfaces that have been contaminated with the droplets of infected persons. The time from exposure to onset of symptoms is typically around five days but may range from two to fourteen days.

Common symptoms include fever, cough, fatigue, shortness of breath, and loss of sense of smell and taste. Complications may include pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure, septic shock, and blood clots.

Method Real-Time RT-PCR.
Sample Type
Swab/ Secretion (Respiratory), Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C and delivered within 24 hours.
Specimens must be sent in RNA Preservative media. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPT-049
Description Human African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is a vector-borne parasitic disease. It is caused by infection with protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Trypanosoma. They are transmitted to humans by tsetse fly (Glossina genus) bites which have acquired their infection from human beings or from animals harbouring human pathogenic parasites. Human African trypanosomiasis takes 2 forms, depending on the parasite involved.

This assay is used for the detection of both T. evansi and T.brucei, however, it can not be used to differentiate between the two subtypes.

Pathogens Tested
  • Trypanosoma brucei gambiense is found in 24 countries in west and central Africa. This form currently accounts for over 98% of reported cases of sleeping sickness and causes a chronic infection. A person can be infected for months or even years without major signs or symptoms of the disease. When more evident symptoms emerge, the patient is often already in an advanced disease stage where the central nervous system is affected.
  • Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense is found in 13 countries in eastern and southern Africa. Nowadays, this form represents under 2% of reported cases and causes an acute infection. First signs and symptoms are observed a few months or weeks after infection. The disease develops rapidly and invades the central nervous system. Only Uganda presents both forms of the disease, but in separate zones.

Method Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
EDTA blood, Culture.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPG-076
Description Viral gastroenteritis is an in vitro test for the qualitative detection of virus nucleic acid in stool samples as an aid to the evaluation of infections with norovirus G1, norovirus G2, astrovirus, rotavirus, adenovirus and sapovirus.

Pathogens TestedNoroviruses (NoroG1 and NoroG2) are single-stranded RNA viruses without an outer envelope. They are an important cause of sporadic cases and outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. They infect all age groups, with particularly severe disease occurring in young children, elderly patients, and persons with preexisting conditions. The incubation time is approximately 24hrs and individuals can shed the viruses in faeces for up to 2 weeks after the infection. They can survive outside of a person on surfaces for several days. Their mode of transmission may be foodborne, waterborne or person-to-person contact via virus containing aerosols and the faecal- oral route. Less than 20 virus particles can be infectious. There is no therapy available.

Rotaviruses (Rota) carry dsRNA encapsulated in a complex virus particle and are the most common cause of severe, dehydrating, gastroenteritis among children worldwide. Infections in adults and the elderly are less frequent but have been documented. Rotavirus has a short incubation period of 1 to 3 days. The virus is shed in faeces for an average for 4 days although excretion of virus for up to 30 days has been reported in immunocompromised patients. The mode of transmission can be faecal-oral, through contaminated water and food. As little as 10 virus particles can cause an infection. Different vaccines are on the market.

Astroviruses (Astro) are a significant cause of acute gastroenteritis, resulting in outbreaks of diarrhea. The virus nucleic acid consists of non-encapsulated ssRNA. Most infections are mild and self limiting, however, the most severe affected group are children under the age of 2 years. Studies implement that the incidence of Astrovirus infections are highly underestimated based on the lack of reliable diagnostic methods. It is suggested that Astrovirus ranks second place after Rotavirus in gastorenteritis in children. Transmission occurs usually from person to person. Symptoms manifest within 2 to 3 days post-infection and last for a few days. Outbreaks usually appear in the winter and spring within the temperate climate zones.

Adenoviruses (HAdV) consist of non-enveloped dsDNA and are a common cause of respiratory illness. The symptoms can range from the common cold to pneumonia, croup, and bronchitis. Depending on the type, adenoviruses can cause other illnesses such as gastroenteritis, conjunctivitis, cystitis, and less commonly, neurological diseases. Adenoviral infections affect infants and young children much more frequently than adults. Severe, disseminated infection can occur in immunocompromised subjects. Adenoviruses are responsible for 15% of children that are hospitalized with gastroenteritis.

Sapoviruses (Sapo) are single-stranded non-enveloped RNA viruses belonging to the Caliciviridae family. Sapo were first detected in 1977 as the cause of a gastroenteritis outbreak in a home for infants in Sapporo, Japan. Sapo is increasingly recognized to be associated with sporadic gastroenteritis in infants and adults in the community, hospitals and other health care facilities. Although Sapo-associated diarrhea is generally mild, severe cases can occur. Transmission occurs via fecal-oral route and consumption of contaminated food. Human Sapo strains cannot be reliably cultivated in vitro, and currently, RT-PCR is the most widely used method for their detection.

Method Real-Time RT-PCR
Sample Type
Stool.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool should be transported to MBG Lab within 24h of collection.
Specimens must be sent in RNA Preservative media. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPM-077
Description Viral meningitis is an infection of the meninges (a thin lining covering the brain and spinal cord) by any one of a number of different viruses. Viral meningitis is also often referred to as aseptic meningitis. The symptoms may include fever, headache, stiff neck and fatigue. Rash, sore throat and intestinal symptoms may also occur.The most common viruses to cause viral meningitis are enteroviruses (intestinal), mumps, arboviruses, herpes family viruses, varicella viruses, Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, Adenovirus. Because a number of different viruses are capable of causing viral meningitis, the manner in which the virus is spread depends upon the type of virus involved. Some are spread by person-to-person contact; others can be spread by insects.

Pathogens TestedHerpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV1 and HSV2), are two members of the herpesviridae family. They contain a large double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genome. Primary Herpes simplex infection is usually acquired in childhood and is most often asymptomatic; after the primary infection, the virus becomes latent in neurons of cranial nerve ganglia (HSV1) or sacral ganglia (HSV2). Reactivation from ganglia produces cold sores or fever blisters in the mouth or on the lip, less often infections of the eye (herpes keratitis), and rarely encephalitis. Symptomatic HSV1 infections are usually manifested as recurrent orolabial and facial lesions. HSV2 is the cause of most genital herpes and is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Herpes can be spread, regardless of symptoms, between sexual partners and from mother to newborn, and is known to increase a persons risk of contracting HIV. Herpes viruses establish lifelong infections, and the virus cannot be eradicated from the body.

Varicella-zoster virus (VZV), a alphaherpesvirus, contains a large double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Unlike HSV1, it is often asymptomatic in primary infections. Primary VZV infection can result in chickenpox (varicella) characterized by malaise, fever and an extensive vesicular rash which can lead to pneumonia in adults, particularly in pregnant woman. Even after clinical symptoms of varicella have resolved, VZV remains dormant in the nervous system of the host in the trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia. In about 10-20% of cases, VZV reactivates later in life producing a disease known as herpes zoster or shingles. Serious complications of shingles include post-herpetic neuralgia, myelitis, eye infections or zoster sine herpete.

Enteroviruses (EV) are a genus of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses including polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and other enteroviruses. Non-polio enteroviruses are very common. They are second only to the "common cold" viruses, rhinoviruses, as the most common viral infectious agents in humans. EV is most likely to occur during the summer and fall. EV affects millions of people worldwide each year, and are often found in the respiratory secretions (e.g., saliva, sputum, or nasal mucus) and stool of an infected person.

Human parechoviruses (HPeV) are positive ssRNA viruses and are prevalent in young children. They have been associated with respiratory disease, including upper and lower respiratory tract disease. It has also been claimed that they commonly cause mild gastroenteritis and, less frequently, meningitis and neonatal sepsis.

Mumps virus (MV), a member of the paramyxovirus family, is a negative-strand RNA virus. The incubation period of mumps is 14 to 18 days. Mumps infection results in an acute illness with symptoms including fever, headache, and myalgia, followed by swelling of the salivary glands. As many as 20% of mumps infections are asymptomatic. Complications of mumps can include meningitis, deafness, pancreatitis, orchitis, and first-trimester abortion. A vaccine for mumps is available in combination with measles and rubella vaccines, or in combination with measles, rubella and varicella.

Method Real-Time PCR.
Sample Type
CSF, Culture, EDTA Blood, Stool.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Stool should be transported to MBG Lab within 24h of collection.
Specimens must be sent in RNA Preservative media. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Validated
Assay Code HPW-078
Description West Nile virus (WNV) is a positive-sense, ssRNA virus of the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. It causes West Nile fever, which is a mosquito-borne viral disease and can affect birds, humans and horses causing inapparent infection, mild febrile illness, meningitis, encephalitis, or death. The arbovirus is maintained in nature by cycling through birds and mosquitoes. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of mosquito-borne disease in the continental United States. It is most commonly spread to people by the bite of an infected mosquito. Cases of WNV occur during mosquito season, which starts in the summer and continues through fall. There are no vaccines to prevent or medications to treat WNV in people. Fortunately, most people infected with WNV do not feel sick. About 1 in 5 people who are infected develop a fever and other symptoms. About 1 out of 150 infected people develop a serious, sometimes fatal, illness. 

Method Real-Time RT-PCR.
Sample Type
EDTA blood, Tissue, Culture, Serum, CSF.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C. Specimens must be sent in RNA Preservative media. Contact MBG Lab for specimen tubes containing RNA preservative if required.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links

Accredited
Assay Code HPZ-079
Description The Zika virus belongs to Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus, and is related to the dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and West Nile viruses. Like other flaviviruses, Zika virus is enveloped and icosahedral and has a nonsegmented, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome.

The infection, known as Zika fever is spread to people primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito and often causes no or only mild symptoms, similar to a mild form of dengue fever. The most common symptoms of Zika are fever, rash, joint pain, and conjunctivitis (red eyes). People usually dont get sick enough to go to the hospital, and they very rarely die of Zika. However, Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause a serious birth defect called microcephaly, as well as other severe fetal brain defects. Zika infections in adults can result in Guillain-Barr syndrome. Once a person has been infected, he or she is likely to be protected from future infections.

In May 2015, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) issued an alert regarding the first confirmed Zika virus infection in Brazil. On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared Zika virus a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC).

Method Real-Time RT-PCR.
Sample Type
Accredited : Serum.
Alternatives : EDTA blood, Saliva.
Transport Condition Samples should be transported at 4°C.
Turn Around Time (TAT) TAT for routine samples is within 3 working days. Urgent Samples will be charged double and will be reported within 1-2 working days.
Samples delivered before 11:00 AM will begin processing immediately resulting in shorter TAT.

Links